Washington D.C.

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  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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Washington D.C.

Washington, D.C., city and district, capital of the United States of America. The city of Washington is situated alongside the District of Columbia (D.C.), the federal district of the United States. Established in 1800 as the seat of national government, Washington is today the core of one of the largest metropolitan areas in the country and a centre of both national and international politics and diplomacy.
In 1783 Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, decided that a permanent capital was needed for the new nation. In 1790, after much political compromise, Congress passed the Residence Act, which determined that a 16-km square site for a capital would be selected on the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland border. President George Washington chose the specific location of the federal district at the head of navigation of the Potomac River. The selected area was to be named the District of Columbia (after Christopher Columbus). Washington appointed Pierre Charles L'Enfant to design the city. L'Enfant created a grand plan for a city bounded by the Potomac and Anacostia rivers and on the north by the present Florida Avenue.It was originally called Federal City, but it was renamed by Congress after the nation's first president.
In the 1800 when in Washington moved federal government, had Washington fewer than 5000 people. In 1850 lived in Washington,d.c. 52 000 people. During the American Civil War in 1870 the population increased to 132 000 people. Most of them were black immigrants. In 1900 was settled also areas outside of the original L’Enfant plan and by 1900 in washington lived 250 000 people. Between 1920 and 1940 city’s population was increased by 250 000. The percentage of black immigrants also increased from 35 per cent in 1950 to 66 per cent in 1990. The relative size of city’s Asians and Hispanic population was also increased. Population in 1980 was 638 432 and in 1990 was 606 900. Washington’s economic life is bound to the city’s role as the federal capital. No other large United states City has economy driven by a single economic force. About 1/3 of workers are federal government employees. In this city is many organizations like a trade associations, labour unions, many of lawyers and consultants. Main international organization like a World Bank, International Monetary Fund and organizations of Americans States also give weight to the financial and political importance of the city. There is also 140 embassies of the some nations.

Turism is the second most important aspect of the city's economy. The historical monuments sightsee more than 18 million visitors each year. The tourism industry have created a large service economy, which employs over one-third of all Washington's workers. In the city are three commercial airports—Washington National, Dulles International, and Baltimore-Washington International.
Universities in Washington include Georgetown University (1789), American University (1893), George Washington University (1821), the Catholic University of America (1889), Trinity College (1897), Howard University (1867), and Gallaudet University (1856).
In the city are the Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1982) and the Vietnam Women's Memorial (1993), the Thomas Jefferson Memorial (1943), the Lincoln Memorial (1922), and the Washington Monument (1884), a 169-m (555-ft) obelisk.

The most conspicuous structure in Washington, because of its majestic architecture and vantage point on a hill, is the Capitol of the United States. In front of the Capitol are the Supreme Court Building (1935) and the main Library of Congress. About 2.4 km (1.5 mi) west of the Capitol is the White House (begun 1792, rebuilt after 1814). Initially named the President's House, it was first occupied by President John Adams and has been the home of every US president since. The White House fronts on Lafayette Square, and the rear balcony looks out across the Ellipse, past the Washington Monument, to the Jefferson Memorial. Directly west is the Executive Office Building (1871-1888), which houses the president's staff.

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