Kategorie: Chémia (celkem: 338 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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Vitamins are organic substances, which the human body need perforce, but it is not able to produce them itself. So they get into the organism like food, either like ready vitamins or like so-called provitamins, which became efficient not until the metabolism. Vitamins do not provide the organism neither energy, they are nor building material for tissues, even though they are irreplaceable for life and health. Vitamins take part in full scale of chemical processes in a lot of systems of human organism. Most of them partake (like the part of enzymes – accelerators of biochemical reactions in cells) on important processes of metabolism, they are essential for keeping the normal bodily functions and for processes leading to the building up of new tissues. The human takes in and needs only small amounts of vitamins. The need of most of them we express in thousandth (mg) or millionth (µg) of grams. It is important to ensure their input, in order not to lead to the formation of diseased utterance of their deficiency. The reduced input of vitamins adversely affects the function of organism, its tenability, physical efficiency or psychical abilities (concentration, learning…). The commended daily input of eatables is often individually different. It depends on the sex, age, physical and psychical overcastting. The larger need have hardworking people, pregnant or nursling women (the part of vitamins is by the circulation or maternal milk needed for the foetus or infant), children and teenagers (quick growth), ill people, reconvalescents and older people.

Today, the quality of our diet by the merit of changes and progress in well-balanced nutrition is mostly on sufficient level. Even though, the difference between today and past: nowadays there are almost no pure forms of total deficiency of certain vitamin – avitaminosis, but it leads only to partial reduction of amount of vitamin in body – hypovitaminosis. Mostly there are taken in reduced form vitamins, which are found in vegetables (mainly vitamin C and vitamins of group B). The frequent reason of deficiency of these vitamins is the lack of fresh fruit, vegetables and whole grain products. Lots of vitamins could be also lost during their modification in production, unsuitable storage and by not sparing kitchen pacing.

On vitamins also high temperature and light (UV radiation), oxygen from atmosphere and acidic conditions (adding calcium hydrogen carbonate), metals or acids act adversely.
Also it is possible to recognize situations of excess of vitamins – hypervitaminosis from OD and not justified use of very high doses of multivitamins.

The 13 well-known vitamins are divided according to the ability of absorption in fats or in water into two categories:
- fat-soluble vitamins – A, D, E, K (are generally consumed with food, which contains fats and because they can be stored in fat in organism, we do not have to consume them every day)
- water-soluble vitamins – vitamins from group B, C (they can not be stored in organism and that’s why need to consume them regularly


About the existence of vitamins has not been known for a long time. The vitamins were invented between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, when the researchers recognized the essential nutrients (proteins, fats, glycids) and mineral substances and thought that they are only ingredients of our diet.

They fed the experimental animals with these known substances in pure conditions. On their surprise, these animals did not grow well and after time they sickened and died. We know, for example, the experiments that made the Russian scholar N. I. Lunin; in the year 1881 he fed one group of mice with natural fresh food and another one only with pure basic nutrients. After a little time appeared that mice fed with natural food are in better situation than the other. So Lunin supposed that in fresh eatables are some still unknown substances, which are necessary and essential for life. He figured out that just these substances has to get every being in order to do not feel sick or even from its deficiency die. So Lunin became the creator of first scientific idea about the existence of substances, which we call today vitamins.

But his report about the results of experiments was forgotten; so in common, the discoverer of vitamins was the Polish Kazimír Funk. Almost 30 years later (1912) after Lunin Funk found out that one of these unknown substances is the organic compound of amine character. He isolated it from the peel of rice and called it vitamin (from Latin words vita – life and amin – the compound of nitrogen). In the history of discovery of vitamins also the Holland doctor Christian Eijkman became famous, that he found out that Japanese mariners, who ate mainly peeled rice suffered from deficiency of vitamin B and that caused the disease beriberi. This discovery markedly changed the opinion on correct content of healthy nutrition, because to that time it was expected that the base of healthy nutrition are proteins.

The individual vitamins were discovered step by step with the accretion of scientific knowledge and so the science has expanded from limited beginnings to the extensive science – vitaminology. Today, there are published so many scientific works about vitamins that the scientists not sufficed to read them. They are not interested in the discoveries of new vitamins, but they explain the attendance of known vitamins in metabolism, study the results at taking vitamins like medicine and suchlike.


Synonym: retinol, axeroftol

Characterization: fat – soluble, pale yellow primary alcohol, in organism is formed by the change of provitamin ß – carotene, it is absorbed in small intestine and stored in liver and hypodermic fat
- necessary for normal function of cells (cell division, stabilization of cell membranes)
- growth and rebuilding of bodily tissues
- building and protection of integrity of skin
- helps to keep the skin smooth and healthy, important by of skin
- prevention against acne and inflammation of skin, mucous membranes, nose, neck, lungs, digestive and excretive system, whereby raises the immunity against infections and inflammations, formation of mucous phlegm
- encourages the creation of bones and tooth, development of placenta
- important precursor of light - sensitive pigments (essential for eyesight during reduced intensity of light)
- synthesis of glycoproteins and steroids (formation of hormones)
- key part during reproduction (lowers the risk of certain types of tumours)
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): difficulty in adapting to darkness, drying up of eye conjunctiva, insufficient forming of tears, light shyness, softening of cornea, dry skin, hair without shine, raised acidity of gastric content, diarrhoea, frequent infections of urinary tubes, presence of blood in urine, kidney stones, infections of respiratory system, eliminated immunity against infections, at children slowed down growth and disorders of intelligence, falling out of tooth and slow down of growth of gums
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): night blindness, permanent blindness, and extremely dry skin, roughening of the skin
Abundance problems (hypervitaminosis): tiredness, feeling of bad, lethargy, irritation, headache (raised cranial force), intestinal problems, disfavour of food, nausea, throwing out, slimming, diarrhoea, falling out of hair, bleeding, pain of bones and joints, dryness and crackling of lips and skin, itching and yellowing of skin, voluptuousness, interfere with growth or lower height, stop menstruation
Daily need: from 0.45 mg to 1.5 mg
Sources: obtained from carotene, which is found in vegetables – carrots, broccoli, squash, spinach, kale, sweet potatoes or absorbing it from plant-eating organisms – fish-liver oil, yolk in eggs, liver, animal fats, milk, vegetables – carrot, spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, kale, fruit – apricots, oranges and butter


Vitamins B also called as the B complex are water-soluble substances, which are an important part of carbohydrate metabolism. There are a lot of them, but the most important are: B1 – thiamine, B2 – riboflavin, B3 = PP – niacin, B6 – pyridoxine, B12 – cobalamin, H – biotin, panthotenic acid and folic acid. The good sources are especially yeast, liver, whole grains, and except inzytol they all consist from nitrogen.

Especially our nerve system needs them.


Synonym: thiamine, aneurin

Characterization: colourless crystalline substance, water soluble, thermally unstable – when cooked, the food is depreciated (for example, by cooking the potatoes in peel, there is lost only one tenth, from peeled potatoes there is lost about one quarter), the need of vitamin B1 increases in pregnancy, stress, fever and surgical accomplishments, soda decomposes it and coffee liquidates it, eating a big amount of flour foods, sweets and cakes rises the need of vitamin B1
- assists in turning sacharids, fats and alcohol into energy like the part of coenzyme decarboxyls (essential component of enzymes of metabolism)
- helps to prevent the creation of other toxic products of metabolism, which should have harmful effects on heart and nerve system
- ensures the correct level of oxygen in our organism
- important for synthesis of acetylcholine (the substance, which is responsible for the transfer of signals in autonomous parasymphatic system)
- important for not broken nerve direction, function of cardiac and bone muscles
- supports the growth and keeps being fertile
- helps to keep good feelings, freshness (prevents tiredness)
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): tiredness, insomnia, indefinite soreness, pain of muscles, digestive problems (reduced appetite, constipation, slimming), heart problems (accelerated heartbeat by smaller effort already, heart insufficiency with the enlargement of heart, breathlessness and swellings), handicap of nerves mainly on lower limbs, at the beginning raised reflexes, fault of harmonization and symmetry of movement, change of sensibility and cramp of tibial muscles, inflammation of nerves (ocular with faults of eyesight), subsidence of eyelashes, depressive mood, squeamishness on noise, loss of will and memory, insufficient activity of thyroid gland, uncertainty
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): beriberi (widespread on Far East, symptoms: muscular weakness, weak coordination, sweating, raised blood pressure, swelling of the heart, heart failure and sometimes also death)
Daily need: 0.5 – 2 mg
Sources: brewer’s yeast, wheat, seeds of sunflower and, oat flakes, legumes, milk, pork meat, liver, heart, dark bread, not peeled rice, buckwheat, hazelnuts, dried fruit


Synonym: riboflavin, lactoflavin, vitamin G

Characterization: water-soluble, thermally unstable, orange-yellow crystalline pigment, very sensitive on UV radiation, raised need of vitamin B2 in the organism is at infectious diseases, diabetes, hormonal contraception and inordinate activity of thyroid gland (hyperthyrosis), insufficient creation by intestinal bacteria after treatment with antibiotics, the need of riboflavin is controlled by the speed, at which the organism burns nutrients needed for cover of energetic demands, can cause yellow-orange colouring of urine (harmless symptom), it is destroyed by antibiotics, contraception pills, all sedatives and incorrect defrosting of meat
- important for metabolism of proteins, sugars and fatty acids (gaining energy from nutrients)
- essential for correct function of vitamin B6 and nicotinic acid
- essential for cell breathing (use of oxygen by cells) and growth of tissues, preservation of good eyesight (adaptation of eye’s retina on sunlight, reduces tiredness during the eye strain, growth of cells
- important for keeping the correct activity of a lot of tissues (for example, tissues creating antidotes and red blood cells)
- needed for healthy skin, nails and hair
- suitable for complete health
- important during creation of hormones of adrenal glands, influences the activity of central nerve system
- serves in the maintenance of mucous membranes
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): skin inflammation (seboroic dermatitis), inflammation of conjunctiva and cornea (itching and tingling of eyes, blush of eye white), light timidity, worsening of vision and imperfections of growth, blush and paring of mucous membrane of lips, inflammation of mucous membrane of mouth cavity and tongue with markedly red not until violet smooth tongue, inflamed mouth nooks and afts in mouth, digestive problems, tightened gullet connected with difficult swallowing of food, slowdown of growth, fever, slow motion, raised production of skin sebum, tooth holes
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): ariboflavinosis (symptoms: mouth lesions, excessive oiliness of the skin and hair)
Daily need: 0.4 – 2 mg
Sources: legumes, cabbage, spinach, yeast, eggs, milk (when stored on light, it loses 50% of vitamin B2), milk products (cheese, curd), liver and kidneys, spawn, fish


Synonym: PP, niacin, nicotinic acid

Characterization: water-soluble, the need is partly surmounted by the creation of it in organism from the amino acid tryptophan, raised need of niacin in organism is in case of failings of absorption and liver, pregnancy, infectious diseases and raised activity of thyroid gland
- the metabolism of sugars
- the creation of energy in cells
- biosynthesis (the part of enzymes of oxide-reductious metabolism, dehydrogenes of coenzyme I and II)
- normal activity of brain and peripheral nerve system, digestive system, skin
- the creation of sexual hormones
- prevents the creation of migreous headaches
- lowers the level of cholesterol in organism
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): tiredness, anorexia and weakness, inflammation of skin (dermatitis) characterized by the sensibility on sunlight, inordinate (rough, thick and pigmented skin), throwing up, smooth red tongue, gripings and diarrhoea changing with constipation, mental failings (depressions, diseased fear), stomached, lack of digestive acids, loss of memory, late hallucinations and heavy psychical traumas
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): pellagra (is found at people, who eat entirely corn, symptoms: sunburn like eruption that breaks out where the skin is exposed to sunlight, weakness, lassitude, insomnia, loss of weight, blush of skin, mental confusion)
Daily need: 5 – 20 mg
Sources: brewer’s yeast, meat - poultry, fish – tuna fish and salmon, liver, milk, fruit, nuts – peanuts, legumes and leafy green vegetables, coffee, tea, whole grain pastry, dried beans and peas, mushrooms


Synonym: pyridoxine

Characterization: water-soluble, thermally unstable, a crystalline derivative of pyrimidine, is formed by three reciprocally interchangeable and related components (pyridoxine, pyrodoxal, pyridoxamine), the higher the intake of it is, the more needed it is, the deficiency is created by heavy disease slimming, treatment with antituberculotics or hormonal contraception
- part of enzymes (coenzyme) of metabolism (metabolism of proteins, fats and sugars – mainly splitting and releasing energy from proteins)
- plays a part in metabolism and correct function of nerve system, transport of amino acids into cells, synthesis of group of substances denoted as eikozanoids (enormous group of molecules playing part in transfer of signals between cells and regulation of lots of functions in organism)
- correct function of nerve system
- creation of cells (red and white blood cells)
- protection against infection, formation of antibodies
- keeps the balance between potassium (K) and sodium (Na) by which he regulates the somatic liquids
- dries out the oily skin and affects against
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): insomnia, lethargy or otherwise raised voluptuousness and edginess, nerve lesions, cramps, inflammation of skin (seboroic dermatitis) and skin rash, disease of mouth (inflamed mouth corners and tongue), disorders of immunity appeared with infections, mental confusions, creation of urinary stones, malfunction of regulation of muscular activity, muscular weakness, cramps of arms and legs, dizziness, nausea, problems with learning and keeping water in organism, pain of tibia
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): damage of external nerves, loss of sensibility of arms and legs
Daily need: 0.3 – 2.5 mg
Sources: brewer’s yeast, wheat, dark pastry, bananas, avocado, legumes, soy, nuts, milk, white in eggs, poultry, fish, spinach, beans


Synonym: cobalamin, cyanocobalamin, antipernicious factor

Characterization: water-soluble, stored in liver, muscular tissue and kidneys, for its absorption is necessary a so-called internal factor (sometimes is the deficiency of vitamin B12 caused just by the deficiency of internal factor)
- growth and division of cells
- creation and maturation of red blood cells (antipernicious factor)
- correct function of nerve system (improves the memory)
- essential for normal functioning of folic acid
- necessary by synthesis of DNA, RNA and myelin (white substance creating the cover of nerve fibres)
- metabolism of proteins and fats (synthesis of amino acid metionine, indirectly plays role in synthesis of proteins and by the growth of organism)
- encourages the appetite
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): anorexia, disorders in physical growth of a child, tiredness, edginess, lesion of brain and nerves (inflammation of nerves, unflagging, tingling and sting of limbs), degeneration of spinal cord, depression and problems with balance
Illness form total deficiency (avitaminosis): pernicious anaemia (symptoms: tiredness, emasculation, tingling of the tongue, stomach problems combined with insomnia and heavy motion
Daily need: 2.0 mg
Sources: eggs, milk, cheese, poultry, fish, liver, oysters, and clams


Synonym: part of the complex of vitamins B3, B4, B5

Characterization: water-soluble, widespread in nature (form Greek word pantothene = from all sides) in the form of coenzyme A
- metabolism of fats, sugars and proteins – gaining energy from nutrients (synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, oxidation of propionate acid, metabolism of amino acid leucine and creation of glucose)
- resistance of mucous membranes against infections
- provides normal activity of nerve system, sexual hormones and adrenal glands
- prevents tiredness and reduces stress
- helps healing sins and infections, treats allergies
- helps the growth of hair
- reduces the toxic effects of lots of antibiotics
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): reduced level of glucose in blood (hypoglycaemia), malfunctions of digestive system (stomach ulcers), problems with skin and blood, psychic stress, becoming grey, insensivity of toes
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): loss of coordination, tiredness
Daily need: 200 mg
Sources: whole grain cereals, legumes, cabbage, potatoes, dried fruit (plums, apricots), brewer’s yeast, liver, intestinal flora, yolk


Synonym: folic acid, folacin

Characterization: water-soluble, stored in liver, raised need in pregnancy (eliminates the occurrence of inborn developmental defects of nerve system of foetus)
- essential for normal function of red and white blood cells
- necessary for creation of cell genes (nucleic acids – DNA and RNA), that’s why it is necessary for the growth and division of cells
- essential for the synthesis of some proteins, mainly these one, which consist from iron in haemoglobin
- intensifies the appetite
- reduces the ulcer pain
- raises the level of female sexual hormone – oestrogen
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): creating ailments of digestive system (anorexia, sore tongue, problems with digestion), depressions, disorders of foetus in pregnancy
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): anaemia, tropical spru
Daily need: 200 mg
Sources: fresh mainly green vegetable (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, beet, spinach, beans, peas, lentils), products from cereals, fruit, nuts, eggs, meat, liver, and kidneys


Synonym: ascorbic acid

Characterization: water-soluble, thermally unstable, oxidation and light destroys it (is one of the most unstable vitamins), most of the animals can synthesize it (except monkeys, guinea pigs and human), the need of vitamin C raises by repeated infections, diarrhoea, during lactation, loss of proteins and by smoking (not until doubled size), the deficiency is supervened mainly in spring, when the amount of vitamin C in organism is generally eliminated
- important reducing substance
- plays role in metabolism of sugars, amino acids, fats, prostaglandins (substances came in lots of functions of organism), steroid hormones
- the creation of connective tissue – fundamental importance for healthy tooth, bones, grists, skin, gums (synthesis of collagen and chondroitine sulphate, that’s intercellular binder, which guarantees togetherness of physical tissues) and growth of bones
- comes in useful by healing sins, scars and fractures
- prevention of arethosclerosis
- protection against infection (strengthens the effects of white blood cells)
- helps preventing and treatment of cold, physical and psychical productivity
- influence on creation of blood, the level of cholesterol in blood
- antioxidative effect (prevents cells from damage by products of oxidation)
- strengthens blood vessels
- improves the absorption of iron in organism (important mainly for vegetarians for indemnity of enough iron, because iron from natural food is absorbed far more effectively by present income of eatables with content of vitamin C)
- plays role in creation of noradrenaline (transmitter of signals of vegetative nerve system and response on stress) and serotonine (regulates sleeping marches)
- slows down ageing
- prevents from civilizing diseases
- helps by regeneration of ill cells and tissues and raises the activity of red blood cells
- helps tissues with internal secretion by production of hormones
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): total physical weakness, anorexia and malfunctions of digestion, tiredness, petulance, susceptibility on infections, raised refraction of capillaries (bleeding to skin and mucous membranes – increase of fragility and bleeding from gums, formation of bruises, bleeding from nose), formation of ulcers on the mucous membrane of mouth, creation of tooth blemish and falling out the tooth, pain of bones of limbs, swelling or pain of joints, slow healing of sins and fractures, muscular weakness
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): scurvy (symptoms: progressive weakness of organism, spongy gums, loosening of the teeth, swollen and sensitive joints)
Abundance problems (hypervitaminosis): stomach problems, feeling to throw up, diarrhoea and tiredness, headache, dizziness, itching or rashes, exceptionally formation of kidney stones
Daily need: 50 – 100 mg
Sources: fruit – briars, blackberries, black currants, raspberries, strawberries, citrus fruit, gooseberries, cantaloupes, pineapples, guavas, dill, horseradish, vegetables – green pepper, tomatoes, raw cabbage, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, legumes, potatoes, broccoli, spinach, beet...


Synonym: calciferol, D2 – ergocalciferol, D3 – cholecalciferol

Characterization: fat – soluble vitamin, in skin formed from provitamin ergosterol by action of UV radiation effective vitamin D, in liver changed into more active vitamin D2, which kidneys change into the most effective form – vitamin D3, the deficiency is caused by the deficiency in our diet (vegetarian food) and deficiency of sunlight, high intensity of growth, by malfunctions of absorption and diseases of liver and kidneys, also called „the sunshine vitamin“
- regulates the amount of calcium (Ca) and phosphor (P) in bodily liquids and tissues
- raises the absorption of calcium in intestine, that leads to storage of calcium in bone tissues and tooth
- stimulates the activity of bone cells (osteoblasts)
- it raises backward absorption of phosphor in kidneys
- regulates also the immunised mechanisms
- has effect on glands with internal excretion
- plays a role in keeping the right function of nerve system, normal heartbeat and proportional blood clotting
- it raises the standstill tension of muscles
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): disorders of formation of bone matter, defects of enamel (high occurrence of tooth hole), moving retardation, flabby muscles, distaste, raised sweating, cramps
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): rickets (occurs rarely in tropical climates where sun is abundant, symptoms: bone deformities – backbone, pelvis, limbs, sometimes fractures)
Abundance problems (hypervitaminosis): throwing out, frequent urinating and thirst, dehydratation, paleness, elevated or reduced heartbeat, voluptuousness, susceptibility to infections, high temperature, damage of retina, storage of calcium in soft tissues (pollution of retina), vascular walls and kidneys, slow down of growth, loss of appetite, lethargy, poisoning
Daily need: 10 µg
Sources: sea fish - tuna, fish-liver oil, vitamin D-fortified milk, milk products, egg yolk, meat, liver, vegetables – soy, sunlight – irradiating with sun, it can be produced in skin by itself


Synonym: tocoferol

Characterization: fat – soluble vitamin, the compounds of vitamin E are antioxidants, which protect lipids of cell membranes from oxidative damage, the diet rich on unsaturated fatty acids and poor on vitamin E causes changes in content of fatty acids in cell membranes and the result are cell membranes which are more responsive to damage
- necessary for development and inviolate function of muscles and fertility (prevention against sterility)
- has some contrasting effects like vitamin K
- keeps the stability of unsaturated fatty acids (protects lipids from oxidation and by that it ensures the stability of cell membranes) and slows down the ageing of cells caused mainly by oxidation, which can affect mainly vitamin A and DNA
- suppression of formation of mutagenes in digestive system
- ensures the normal function of nerves
- important for supplementation of the blood by oxygen, which is then carried into heart and other organs
- helps the conversion of nutrients into cells
- strenghtens the walls of capillaries and protects the red blood cells from harmful toxic substances
- protection from civilizing diseases (prevention of storage of calcium in the walls of blood vessels and cardiac illness)
- moves in women the limit of menopause on 50 to 59 years and this protects heart
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): depositing damage of liver and muscles, muscular weakness, neurological symptoms, (burst and collapse of red blood cells), inflammation of shanks, legs and eyelashes, worsening of fertility, lack of sexual concupiscence (appetency), abnormal storage of fats in muscles, degenerative changes of heart and other muscles, dryness of skin
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): popularly advocated for a wide range of diseases, but no substantial evidence has been found to back these claims
Abundance problems (hypervitaminosis): tiredness, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, flatulence and diarrhoea, malfunctions of blood clotting, stomach ache and headache, muscular weakness, reduced level of glucose in plasma, inflammations of mucous membrane of mouth, chapped mouth corners
Daily need: 10 – 20 mg
Sources: vegetables – soy, corn, nuts, vegetable fats and oils, egg yolk, milk, meat, wheat germ, liver


Synonym: fylochinon

Characterization: water-soluble vitamin, the deficiency is formed by disorder of absorption of fats by illnesses of liver, bile traces, after removing the gall bladder, chronic diarrhoea, antibacterial treatment (antibiotics lead to the reducing of amount of bacteria, which produce vitamin K)

- during blood clotting is needed for the formation of protrombin and factors VII, IX and X in liver (vitamin K lets these protein factors bind calcium (Ca) and other factors needed for formation of thrombin – necessary by that it helps by the synthesis of substances, which form blood sediments)
- synthesis of factors acting on dissolving the blood sediments, protein C and S
- modulation of proteins binding copper (Cu)
- healing of sins and removing scars
- metabolism
Deficiency problems (hypovitaminosis): slowed down blood clotting, deficiency of blood platelets (bleeding from mucous membranes – gums, nose and other organs)
Illness from total deficiency (avitaminosis): uncontrolled bleeding
Abundance problems (hypervitaminosis): from the decomposition of red blood cells, damage of liver – possibility of forming jaundice (yellow colouring of skin), affects disrupting during the treatment with medicine, which restrain blood clotting
Daily need: 100 µg
Sources: milk, cheese, vegetables – spinach, broccoli, cabbage, tomatoes, kale, lettuce, cauliflower, soy, vegetable oils, wheat, potatoes, green tea, beef liver, intestinal bacteria in large intestine, yolk in eggs



Life Extension: Science or Science Fiction?

Explorers once searched for the fountain of youth, and old legends tell of magic potions that keep people young. The ancient questions-‘Why do people grow old?’ ‘ How can we live longer?’ -still fascinate people, including the scientists who study aging. But their most important question is this: ‘How can people stay healthy and independent as they grow older?’
Recently, researchers have begun to find certain chemicals in our bodies that may someday answer these questions. As a result, some stores and catalogs now sell products that are similar to these chemicals. However, the advertising claims that these products can extend life are very much exaggerated. Currently no treatments, drugs, or pills are known to slow aging or extend life in humans. Ten Tips for Healthy Aging

No known substance can extend life, but the chances of staying healthy and living a long time can be improved:

· Eat a balanced diet, including five helpings of fruits and vegetables a day. · Exercise regularly (check with a doctor before starting an exercise program). · Get regular health check-ups. · Don’t smoke (it’s never too late to quit). · Practice safety habits at home to prevent falls and fractures. Always wear your seatbelt in a car. · Stay in contact with family and friends. Stay active through work, play, and community. · Avoid overexposure to the sun and the cold. · If you drink, moderation is the key. When you drink, let someone else drive. · Keep personal and financial records in order to simplify budgeting and investing. Plan long-term housing and money needs. Keep a positive attitude toward life. Do things that make you happy.

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