Sports and Games

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 2105×

Příbuzná témata

Sports and Games

1 Vocabulary
Indoor sports, outdoor sports, summer sports, winter sports, water sports, field, pitch, swimming pool, ice, mountains, football, shooting, ice hockey, weightlifting, figure skating, swimming, backstroke, butterfly, breaststroke, crawl, freestyle, windsurfing, surfing, golf, cycling, baseball, skating, canoeing, snowboarding, ski-jumping, skiing, downhill, super-G, slalom, walking, curling, volleyball, basketball, rugby, soccer, horse riding, chess, running, sprints, middle distance run, long distance run, hurdling, high jump, long jump, pole vault, body building, cross-country skiing, discus throw, athletics, fencing, tennis, table-tennis, gymnastics, platform diving, scuba diving, horse racing, pole vault, greyhound racing, motor racing, jogging, judo, karate, boxing, kickboxing, modern gymnastics, hurdle race, shot put, protector, knee-pad, bandage, stick, foul, helmet, skates, sneakers, gloves, ferry-boat, referee, attacker, defender, goalkeeper, goalie, mask, block, puck, ball, ski, skier, race, competition, trophy, net, offside, icing, penalty, injury, checking, possession, racket, goggles, scuba-gear, championship, tournament, rink, ski sticks, ski binding, bow, arrow, goal, training, surfing board swim suit, swim trunks, swimming pool, fans, wall bars, horizontal bar, parallel bars, beam, rings, vaulting horse, mats, springboards, climbing rope, pole, bobsleigh, sleigh, skeleton, dress, warming-up, stretching, aerobics, handball, decathlon, steeple-chase, rowing, rock climbing, bungee-jumping, paragliding, parachuting, lacrosse, field hockey, kick, punch, pass, shot, slap shot, wrist shot, backhand, forehand, sledding, hiking, platform diving, bowling, tennis court, runner, jogger, discipline, doping, match, record, record breaker, record holder, Olympic Games, yacht, sailing, sailor, dressing room, crossbar, goalpost, strip, serve, set, game, love game, cricket, squash, billiards, pool, fencing, skateboarding, yoga, sky-diving, gliding, speed skating, ice dancing, free skating, tobogganing, walking, rally, Formula 1, pit-stop

2 Rules
Ice hockey: Ice hockey is being played on ice-rink, normally indoors. The rink has five basic lines: 2 are at the level of the net, 2 are attacking/defensive lines and one is the middle line. It’s a match between 2 teams. Players must score as much goals as they can. The team with most goals wins. If the teams both have the same number of goals scored against, it’s a draw.

Every team can have six players on the ice. Usually one is the goalie and the others are skaters. The skaters are divided into two groups: the attackers and the defensemen. Three of them are the attackers and two are the defenders. The game begins with face-off. It means, that the players make a circle. Each team is on one half of the circle. One player of every team goes to the middle to try to win the face-off. Then the referee drops a puck between the center players. Players charged to win the face-off are trying to pass the puck to their teammates with their sticks. If any player makes a foul during the game, the referee can send him off the field for some time. This is called penalty. Normal penalty length is two minutes, but it depends on how serious the foul is. The team with one or more players advantage is playing a power play. But the other team is short-handed, so it must kill the penalty. The game can be interrupted, when is called icing, offside, loose-net, penalty, or in the NHL, the two lines pass. The game is divided in three periods of 20 minutes. If during the normal time the match doesn’t have a winner, it can be prolonged to the overtime. The overtime is a short period, in witch the first team to scores is the winner. It is also called “quick death”. In playoffs draw games aren’t accepted, so if the match doesn’t have a winner after the overtime period, shootout is the solution of judging the teams. Soccer: Soccer is being played on a grass field. It is too a game, where two teams must score the highest number of goals possible. Every team has 11 players (one is goalkeeper). The game is played with ball. Fouls are punished with free kicks. Referee can give for harder fouls yellow or red cards. Yellow card is the first and last warning. If the same player makes some serious foul during the game, he is given a red card. With the red card he is sent off the field for the rest of the game end he can’t play in the next match. The coach is allowed to make only three suspends in one match. Every game has two halves, 45 minutes per each half. The greatest soccer tournament is the World cup. It’s organized every four years. This cup is the most valuated soccer trophy.

Chess: Chess is not enough respected as a sport. Rules are simple: game is played on a board of 8x8 squares of black and white color. Each player has 16 figures. The figures represent a king, a queen, two bishops, two knights, two rocks and eight pawns.

The main idea is to win the game defeating the enemy – the player you play against. You must have good combination qualities, if you want to win the game. Pawns can move only one square forward, but they are operating on the first squares forwards on diagonal lines. Bishops operate only on diagonals of their color. Knights’ moves are L-shaped. It means that they always move three squares forwards (forwards, backwards, to the left or to the right) and then one square to the side. Rocks can move only horizontal or vertical. The queen can move to every side – horizontally, vertically or diagonally. The king is also allowed to move to all sides, but only one square. Players can take other one’s figures. This is a very old game. It is a strategy game based on fights and battles between two kingdoms. Table-tenis: This game is for two or four players. For playing is needed: table, net, at least one ball (the official diameter is 40 millimeters), racket (each player has to have one). The object of this game is to defeat the player(s) on the other side of the table by winning more sets. New rules of this sport say, that every game is played until one player has three sets won. To win the set means, that the player needs to score 25 times against the other player. You scores, when you hit the ball, the ball goes over the net to the other side of the table, touches more than one times the table, or touches the table once and the other player is unable to send you the ball back. According to new rules, everyone serves two times, and then the service is changed for two services. For this game good reflexes are needed.

3 How to get to the top
There is only one way how you can be the best – hard training. It doesn’t matter which sport are you interested in (- which you are doing), if you want to get to the top, the only solution is to practice to improve your skill until you reach your dream. Of course, you have to have some psychical and physical qualities, or you won’t exceed… But this is a lot of times a question of being lazy and not enough strong psychically. I mean, a lot of big sportsmen had to win over their own mind by not giving up when they felt they were fed up with their sport. That’s the moment, when you need a help of someone to keep you trying, practicing, going on with the activity you wanted to be good in. That person can be for example your stranger or a good friend of yours.

Their task is to encourage you and help you to not give up because of eventual failure in training or in a competition… If you want to get to the top one day, remember: If you believe yourself, sure you will achieve – “Believe, achieve!”

4 Olympic games
The Olympic Games (The Olympics) were already held in ancient Greece. At that time they put emphasis on the ideal of an all-round developed person. The Olympic Games were renewed by Pierre de Coubertin before more than hundred years ago (exactly in the year 1896) and today as well as in ancient times they take place every four years. Since 1924 there are two parts to the games – the winter part and the summer part – which alternate once every two years.
Modern Olympic games have been realized since year 1896. They are taken in a way similar to the world championships. Every two years are changing the winter Olympic games and summer Olympic games. The last games were the Winter Olympic games in Salt Lake City in the USA. The symbol of the Olympic games is the five color rings, which represent the five continents.
5 Sport activities in my life
Since my childhood I was interested in sports. I think it could be because my father was very good sportsmen during his studies. His original profession is also PE teacher, so he had to be good. He has been teaching me ways to improve myself in the sports I was interested in. And thanks to him now I can be proud of my skill of skiing, swimming or playing table tennis. But this is also a question of training and my will to learn. Without this it’s impossible to be good in any sport. I like very much skiing. That’s one of my favorite sports. It’s a pity that this sport can be realized only in winter… The risk might be big, but the better equipment you have the smaller is the risk… Another sport which I enjoy doing it is the table tennis. I usually don’t have time and a fellow-player to play against, so I don’t play it often. I think I like this game because it is dynamic and it requires good reflexes. Although many people don’t consider it as a sport, I like chess. I can say, that I’m quite good in this sport. I have won several competitions here in the district and I think I am one of the best chess players in my category here (together with Svrček and Batmendijnová...).

6 Famous sportsmen
Slovak famous sportsmen:
Ice hockey: Šatan, Bondra, Pálffy, Hossa, Demitra,
Handzuš, Bartečko, Stümpel, Lašák, Nagy, Lintner, Višňovský,
Petrovický, Országh, Šťastný, Golonka
Tennis: Hrbatý, Kučera, Bek, Nagyová,
Hantuchová, Suchá, Husárová
Swimming: Moravcová
World famous sportsmen:
Ice hockey: John LeClair, Brandan Shanahan, Derryl Shannon, Eric Lindros,
Jay McKee, Cris Gratton, Tim Connolly, Sergei Fedorov,
Maxim Afinogenov, Alexei Zhitnik, Patrick Roy,
Martin Brodeur, Martin Biron, Tommy Salo, Dominik Hašek,
Jaromír Jágr, Tomáš Vokoun, Jochen Hecht,
Soccer: Ronaldo, Roberto Carlos, Beckham, Figo,
Raúl, Kahn, Kluivert, Scholes, Henry, Zidane, Batistuta, Pelé, Owen
Car racing: Schumacher, Coulthard, Barrichelo,
Frentzen, Lauda,
Chess: Alekhine, Anand, Anderssen, Bird,
Blackburne, Bogoliubow, Potvinnik, Capablanca, Euwe, Evans, Fine,
Fischer, Flohr, Kamsky, Karpov, Kasparov, Keres, Korchnoi, Larsen,
Lasker, Marshall, Morphy.

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