Serious world problems

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 21. ledna 2007
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Serious world problems

Nowadays, society is in such a situation, when all around communities there are many serious problems, which influence daily life. On every continent in the world there is happening something earnest which causes changes of society and it influences its natural existence. Mostly, the problems are of military, industrial, economic and humanitarian character. These problems mostly demand much energy to solve them. The majority of these problems refers to particular areas which need support of other people very often. There would not have been solved most of the serious world problems without help of somebody else, and on the contrary, the problems could become more dangerous and spread all over the world. Martin Luther King, Jr., in his „Letter from Birmingham Jail“ describes means of nonviolent direct action of outsiders. King concerns with problems connected with race discrimination. The main point of King`s effort was to avoid violent demonstrations which made situation worse and they created a new violence. King explained to people the need of nonviolent direct action to get the rights of afro-american citizens. People should be intrested in those actions if they want to reach the human rights. Nonviolent direct action was to gain a particular level of tension in society. The goal of the tension was to compel the society to start negotiations. King describes two kinds of tension which accompanied life of people. Violent tension is a dangerous issue which causes violence. The second is constructive nonviolent tension which arises in nonviolent direct action. King explains that only oppressed people fight for their rights. And those rights will be never given to them in a simple way from the oppressors. There had been many insignificant negotiations about the problem of racial discrimination, but there never had been reached a positive point. Neverending presuasion about waiting and patientce in settling down those situations, were not creative. It only gave opportunity to develope problems and that made the situation even worse. King defends his position of outsider in particular communities in the way that local problem influences the whole society. It is never connected just with a local community. He also supports the means of outsiders in an example of Apostol Paul, who left his village to
spread faith to the other parts of Greco-Roman World (King, 1963). King`s work was to organize nonviolent direct actions and the leadership.

He used his experiences from the past actions which caused constructive tension in society. An example was the bus-boycot which was caused by refusing the afro-americans to seat in front of the busses. One black woman was aressted because braking the rule. As a contrareaction was that people stopped using the public transportation of those companies. The afro-american people were the majority of clients of those companies. These boycots caused great financial losses. The negotiations connected with problems of discrimination reached a positive point and the discrimination rules were canceled. King expresses that influence of outisiders in dealing with problems of insiders is important because outsider can find the right solution for particular situation. World is often confronted with situations which led to the horrible problems, where outsiders were the only one means of preventing from catastrophe. These conflicts are of military character, where the coming of outsiders can mean reduction of tension between the fighting groups. As an example are events which took place in Kosovo in the year 1998. The Serbian army had started an action of ethnic cleansing-destroying villages, killing people and other atrocities. Serbs police attacked protesters in Pristina, the Kosovar catpital, where many people were injuried and a great number of them died. Yugoslav President, Slobodan Milosevic did not accept international warnings to end violence and ethnic cleansing (Yugoslavia, 1998). Continual damaging of villages and prosecution of inhabitans had caused that 300-400,000 people had lost their homes and other properties. Those violent military actions of Serbians had to be stopped for they were causing instability of the whole country. The goal of the NATO was to convince Milosevic to cease his unhuman acting (War in Europe). After coming of the NATO`s army the soldiers started direct protections of Kosovar Albanians from Serbian army. They had gathered to the areas inhabited by Kosovar Albanians and they created a border between the both sides. There was very important to stop brutal treatment of Serbian soldiers to Kosovar Albanians. Without entering of an outsider to the conflict, there would not have been found a way how to deal with the problems of the insiders. NATO as an outsider had become important part in dealing with problems of Kosovar Albanians. On the other hand, in some situations, the outsiders can cause increase of negative tension, and the result of it is a more critical situation of the local community as before.

Outsiders can bring new kinds of violence that can lead to the new way crisis. As an example there is bombing of Kosovo by the air forces of NATO. The army of NATO used bombs consisting depleted uranium in Kosovo in a great deal.
The bombing caused problems connected with the side effect because of uranium, many people are instantly ill and many of them are dying of uranium consequences (Antinato, n.d.). Besides, there had been given rise to many ecological and environmental catastrophes. In these cases the help of outsiders can have a negative effect, and it can make the situation worse. Although the presence of outsiders can sometimes cause some kind of destruction of local society, or increase negative tension, it is nothing in comparison with what could have happened if they had not taken part in those conflicts inside the community of insiders. Even if whatever man does with a positive meaning, he never avoids the negative shadows of
opposing views. The concrete cause was the bombing of Belehrad where NATO used bombs with depleted uranium. Even it was true, that the bombing had caused many damages, without bombing there would have been created revival of the Serbian army. The Serbian army could have used the time to renew the ethnic cleansing and continue in violent actions which were parts of its strategy. Such bomb pauses could have meant other great losses and other big numbers of refugees from Kosovo (War in Europe). Even if there comes to increasing of damages caused by outsiders in the communities of insiders, they are incomparable with events which come to existence in case of unconcern of outsiders regarding the particular problem. Outiseders are supported by financial or technical sources which are useful in dealing with conflicting situations. There are many events when a man has to spend a big amount of
financial capital for making the situation better. There would not have been reached solution without the investments. The great instance, when outsiders support insiders, is an organisation the Red Cross. One form of their help, is for example, an activity of the Red Cross in Angola. There is increase of the infant mortality and the Red Cross has started to provide supplies of dirinking water, medicamentes, food and hygienical items. They built, for example, latrines and it has started distribution of soap to 20,000 families. The Red Cross has opened educational programms on the basis of hygiene which is on very low level in this part of the world (Angola, 2000).

Without the help of the Red Cross, there would not have been solved these problems, and it would have meant increase of the infant mortality. In some cases, the material and financial support of outisider can lead to the deterioration of the situation. International organizations concerning with research of epidemiological preventions often use their budged to solve all round the world. The money were used to produce chemicals which can stop the proces of developing dangerous epidemies. A good example is using of DDT to liquidate mosquitos that are origin of malaria. Application of DDT has caused that mosquitos become resistant to DDT. Too much using of DDT has caused serious pollution of environment and it has penetrated into almost all living forms. There have been destroyed water sources, which were essential for the inhabitans. Drinking of the water contaminated by DDT has caused that chemical pervaded into animal organisms and it has seriously damaged their health condition (DDT a Banned Insecticide).World organisations as outsiders that supported this plan financially and materially has also contributed to the whole complex of problems. Other example, when material and financial help had not only humanitarian purposes, but it had its other side, and it was created also for financial benefit, was the Marshall Plan. The plan was orientated in recovery of Europe after The Second World War. The goal of this plan was not only to help Europe itself, but also to raise the US prosperity. It could be called rather a business plan then an altruistic help because the american businessmen had been selling american products in Europe for a long time (Benefits for the U.S. Economy).
Material and financial help from outsiders is very important, although it can sometimes cause negative factors. In the DDT case, in liquidation of mosquitos infected with malaria, there were 25 milions lives saved. Without application of the DDT that was brought by outsiders, there could have occurred a catastrophe with far-reaching consequences (DDT a Banned Insecticide). It was almost the same with the Marshall Plan, where the financial and material help from outsiders became ireplecable. Europe after The Second World War was without essential sources, there was great femine, all people were unemployed, without homes which were destroyed by the war. Morality was totally ruined and there was no functional market. The whole production of Europe was practically stopped. In those time, Europe was in such a critical situation that without help of an outsider it would not have been easily recovered.

The Marshall Plan saved Europe from even worse situation in which Europe had been finding. Without the US help there could have been more spread comunism to West Europe (For European Recovery). This historical fact confirms that without the financial and
material help of outsiders there would not have been solved a lot of problems and they would have become more dangerous. Outsiders disperse education and knowlage that are invaluable in dealing with problems of insiders. Without needed knowledge, a particular problem could not have been solved and it could not even have been detected and there woud have not been found its origin. One case of using experiences and education of outsiders, are world programms to
save rain forest. Their protection is very important, inasmuch as, the rain forest are the
basic source of oxygen and they influence the whole earth ecosystem. Next destruction could cause its serious threat. Very influential outsiders in these cases are world protecting organisations. Acerca is a company concerned with protecting of rain forest. In its work is used experiences and professional education of its members. Acerca as an outsider, was invited to Mexico and Nicaragua to help with problems of rain forest. The company is using informative campaigns to draw an attention towards the state of rain forest. The aim of the companies is also to cause world tension that could force responsible sides to negotiations about stopping destruction of rain forest (Acerca, 2000). The problems could not have been solved without education and knowledges.
Experiences and knowledge, outsiders are disposing of, can often cause danger and they can be misused. As an example can be shown Enrico Fermi, an Italian physican, who was as an outsider invited during The Second World War to the USA to project an atomic bomb.
He had been concerning with a research for controlled nuclear reaction that would not lead to
a dangerous explosion. The atomic bomb was used in Japan during the Second World War. It was dropped to the towns Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The two bombs killed 150,000 people in
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those cities (A Science Odyssey). And it is one of examples, when education and experiences of outsiders can cause danger. Experiences and knowledge of outsiders are often used as the best way in solving problems of insiders. Outsiders can bring a solution to problems because they are well informed about the issue.

The case of Enrico Fermi who helped with preparing of the atomic bomb, contributed to finish the Second World War because the atomic bomb became strongly respected and it had the power to stop the War which could last longer it had been lasting (A Science Odyssey). Controlled nuclear reaction is also used as the cheapest source of electricity. Outsiders are often helpful in situations when there is a need to find solution using highly professional education and knowlage.
The task of outsiders in society is very important and often ireplecable. Their help in solving the crises situations, or problems of the whole society is necessary. Refusing the need of communication is often an expression of the human weakness and misunderstanding of the natural way of communication, and as the only one possibility in finding solution of a particular problem. Name: Pavel Ondrejka
Instructor: Paul S. Kim
Date: April 17, 2000.

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