Medicine Through the Ages

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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Medicine Through the Ages


1. PREHISTORY & ANCIENT WORLD

Indian medicine
-the medicine system is known as Ayruveda and means knowledge or science
based on 2 books:
Charaka Samhita-mainly a medicine text
Seshruta Samhita-concentrate on surgery
-the whole medicine was a mix of religion and secular medicine
-surgeons used over 121 different steel instruments
-most inducted was the plastic surgery(punishment for adultery was a truncated nose)
Egyptian medicine
-treatments:herbs,plants,surgery and magic charms
-everything was proven to have sound medicinal properties for exam., honey has antibacterial properties and was used to heal wounds
-Imhotep was an Egyptian doctor, who lived around 2600BC and was later revered as a god
Greek medicine
-Asclepius-a doctor, later revered as a god
-Hippocrates believed that disease had a rational basis
-he developed the theory of Four Humours:black bile, yellow bile,phlegm and blood
-he left over 50 written works which advised doctors on how to examine patients for symptoms,provide simple treatmants and observe and record the development of disease
-the whole medicine was a combination of Hippocrate’s scientific approach and of Asclepius’s supernatural beliefs
Chinese medicine
-they believed that disease was caused by unbalance in the body
-the body was made upof 2 sorts of energy, Yin (dark, moist and female) and Yang (masculine,light and dry)
-the balance was rectifed by acupunture or moxibustion-placing a cone of moca (leaves of a mugwort plant) on particular acupunture points( that was to increase the amount of Yang in the body)
-human dissection was forbidden-that’s why they new little about anatomy
Interesting ways of Roman restoring (uzdravovanie):
Spider-bite: you have to crush the body of the spider and place it on the bite, otherwise you must cover the wound with his web
Fatigue or low weight: thick soup of shrimps,flour & frogs boiled in wine
Antidote against a toad: crashed frogs soaked in wine
Fever: flesh of frogs cooked in olive oil
Herb-bylina Cover-prikryť Fatigue-únava Moist-mokvavý
Truncate-odseknúť bile-žlč rectify-naprávať
Secular-dlhodobý phlegm-ľahostajnosť increase-zvýšiť
Adultery-cudzoložstvo disese-choroba amount-hodnota
Charm-kúzlo treatment-liečenie dissection-pitva
Revered-uctievaný approach-prístup antidote-protijed
Sound-vhodný cone-šiška toad-ropucha
2, MIDDLE AGES
Blackdeath- 2 kinds of plague: pneumonic –air based, & bubonic- spread by a flea bite, responsible for 10 mil.deaths in 2 years
-monansteries- in there you had the best chance to survive in Middle Age, some of them had hospital attached, treatments would combine with natural remedies with religious faith
-monks experimented with creating medicines
Rhazes-a Persion doctor around AD900, follower of Hippocrates
-he discovered the difference between measles and smallpox
St.Anthony’s fire- dreadful illness, the cause is a fungus that grows on broad made from rye, you have visions.
London was the smellest town in England ,they have threw rubish ,excrements and scran out of the window and waited till a downpour came and carried it away. They shouted :”gardey loo”

Plague-mor measles-osýpky scran-zvyšky jedla
Spread-rozširovať smallpox-kiahne loo-WC
Monansters-kláštory draedfull-strašný
Attached-oddaný fungus-huba
Remedies-zlúčeniny rye-raž

3,RENAISSANCE
17th century –invention of the microscope by Anton Van Leenwenhoek
1665-reflecting microskope by Robert Hooke
Marcello Malpighi- used it to identify and descripe the tiny blood vessels called capillaries
In the 16th century was the main method of stopping a wound bleeding was for exam.

To cauterise or seal it with hot iron or hot oil
Ambroise Paré-a french surgeon stopped it, he made a dressing of eggs whites, oil,roses & terpentine, also used to stop bleeding after amputation
-the infections nature of the plague was recognized
differenet practiciouers-physician,surgeons,apothecaries & wise man also
barber surgeons-would advertise with a red & white rotation pole outside they shops, they perform a variety of tasks including cutting & shaving hair, extracting teeth, lancing bolis, setting broken bones, blood-letting & amputation.

Vessel-cieva physician-lekár task-robota
Cauterization-leptanie variety-rozmanitosť pole-stíp












4.INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
-period of inventions
1895-X-rays (electo-magnetic radiaton) by Wilhem Röntgen, imprtant in the 1.W.W for locating bullet and shrapnel wounds
Lady Mary Wortley Montague- brought from Turkey to Europe the idea of inoculation
-19th century- cholera & tuberculosis
Robert Koch-his research on bacteria won him the Nobel Prize in 1905
-he identified the microbes that caused tuberculosis 1882 and cholera 1883
Joseph Lister- first method of preventing infection during an operation -> an carbolic spray-antiseptic 1867,surgeons wore clean clothes, operating theatre was kept clean and the instruments were regulary disinfected
Edward Jenner- vaccination
Humpy Davy-laughing gas-anaesthetics
James Simpson-chloroform
1860-nurse training started
-also woman began to study medicine
Elizabeth Garett Anderson-first female doctor
Public haelth:- introduction of toilets , Tobacco was used as a medicine chewing it to protect agains the plague, resuscitator kit was insented
Fads: health spas ,electric batery(they thought it has a medicinal power)

Bulett-guľka vaccination-zaočkovať spas-
Inoculation-naočkovanie kit-náčinie
Carbolic-fenol fads-módny výstrelok


5,MODERN WORLD
1904- Nobel Prize for discovery of radium by Rene & Marie Curie
1911- for Maria’s X-ray equipment in the surgery
diseases: cancer, heart defect
1928-Alexander Fleming- penicilin
1967-Christian Bernard-first organ(hearth) transplatacion
1900-difference between the main blood groups
1865-antiseptic
-introduction of wering rubber gloves
-keyhole surgery use endoskope attached to probe organs
1960-laser
-microsurgery, enabling surgeons to rejoin tiny nervs and blood vessels
NHS-National Health Service
In 1948 the stone of public health in Britan
Influence of Western medicine:homeopathy
reflexology
chiropractice
far east: Yoga and acupuncture

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