Kategorie: Ekonómia (celkem: 556 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 07. dubna 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 2447×

Příbuzná témata


Management is the co-ordination of an organisation’s resources. Any time individuals are working together to achieve a common goal, some decisions must be made regarding who will have which job, and how and when other resources are to be used. Management hierarchy means a structure with 3 levels. Top management have the most power and responsibility. Middle management have somewhat less power and responsibility and implement the broad goals set by top management. Operating management co-ordinate the work of those who are not mangers. Managerial skills fall into 3 basic areas:
1. Technical skills are needed to perform the mechanics of a particular job and include also administrative skills = ability to make schedules and read computer printouts.
2. Human relation skills are needed to understand other people, to interact effectively with them, and to get them to work as a team.
3. Conceptual skills are needed to understand the relationship of the parts to the whole. It is ability to imagine the long-range effects of their decisions. The 4 functions of management are:
1. Planning involves the establishment of objectives for the organisation and the attempt to determine the best ways to accomplish them. For all plans, the starting point is establishing the goals and objectives. The goals must reflective with the company’s mission. 2. Strategies or long-range plans are for 2 – 5 years ahead. They are set by top management. It involves a mission, indicating what business the firm is in, a statement of tactical objectives and operational objectives, which become the company’s policies.
Tactics or short-range plans are made by middle and operating management. Plans are very specific and include procedures (telling employees exactly what steps to take in a given situation), practices (methods for handling specific problems) and rules (procedures covering one situation only) budget ( a plan that expresses in numerical terms how the resources of a firm can be distributed to attain a desired profit).
3. Organising is the process of arranging the firm’s resources (primarily people) to carry out its plans. Managers determine a division of labour best suited to accomplishing the organisation’s objectives and then proceed with staffing the positions (finding and selecting workers).
Getting people to work effectively and willingly involves the directing.

This includes motivating (process of giving employees a reason to do the job and to try hard) and leading (showing employees how to do the job). There are 3 leadership styles.
Autocratic leader centralises authority and personally makes all decisions.
Democratic leader emphasise group participation and a free flow of communication, although the leader still has the final say.
The laissez-faire leader takes the role of a consultant, offering opinions only when asked. Participate management is the approach where a firm regularly involves its workers in decision making. 4. Controlling is the process of ensuring that the firm’s objectives are actually being attained by monitoring progress. Managers set up standards, which are goals against which performance is later measured. These standards may be framed in terms of profitability, units produced or sold, employee turnover etc.
The handling of unusual and serious problems is called crisis management. How such problems are handled may well determine whether the company will have a future. Experts caution that the first 24 hours of a crisis are critical.

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