Equestrian sports

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 07. dubna 2007
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Equestrian sports

People and horses have been living together already since long past. The using of horse´s power fascilated people´s work, transport and raised the sphere of their activity. The horse also granted the stuff important for life: milk, meat, leather or dung for heating.
Today the horses are raised and trained for work, breeding, exhibition or various sports like races, jumping, military, polo or hunting. In present olympic games three riding sports are substituted: showjumping, dressure and military.

The first aim of the races were the effecient trials of speed and endurance of horses designed for breeding. They are known already 3000 years (the first record of the horse races in European continent was in 624 BC), they were also part of ancient olympic games. They aquired current sport charakter in England in the 18. century, when they became to be the means for improvement of the bleeding of English fullblooders.
There are three kinds of races: flat races, steeplechase and harness races.

Flat races also called "the royal sport" are the quickest. The horses compete on flat track with no obstacles. They are led by jockeys who wear "silks"- caps and jackets designed in distinctive colours and patterns which help to identify the horses. The horses wear light saddle with very short stirrups.
Most important races are in Great Britain: St. Leger in Doncaster, 2000 and 1000 Guineas in Newmarket, Derby and Oakes in Epsom. St. Leger. Derby and 2000 Guineas means the "Triple Crown", the highest distinction of the turf and since 1853 it was won by only 12 horses.

Steeplechase are long race with big rodded or other obstacles. The first competition was recorded in Ireland, it was run from Buttevante steeple to St. Leger steeple. The most famous competition is Grand National, Big Liverpool steeplechase, which has 30 obstacles and it´s the hardest one. The centre of steeplechase is althought Cheltenham and the "Golden cup" steeplechase, which is 5,7 m long. Great race on European continent is the Great pardubická steeplechase with it´s famous water trench 'Taxis'.

Harness races are similar to the ancient carriage races. The trotting horse is driven from a light, two-wheeled carriage called sulky. Especially for this sport have been developed special breeds like the Standbred and the French Trotter. This sport is most popular in USA, the centre is Meadlowlands in state New Jersey. The best competition is the Woodrow Wilson prize.

In Europe the bigest hippodrome is in Vincennes in France and in Moscow.

Showjumping as a sport has not old history. The first official jumping competition was in 1865 in England. The now-using rules were compiled after the 2nd world war. The rider has to wear red, dark-blue or black riding jacket, white jodhpurs, black highboots and black hard hat.
The horse with the rider is to overleap some amount of obstacles in the time limit and without throwing some obstacle down. The aim of the rider is to pass it clearly and in the shortest possible time.
The track consists of various kinds of unfixed obstacles, some of them are united into two- or three-jumps, sometimes there´s a water trench. Showjumping fences consist of wooden stands, that support planks or poles.
The referees penalise competitors for errors such as knocking down the obstacle (4 penalty points), refusing jump, deviating from the course, disobedience (3rd means disqualification) fall of the horse or rider (8pp) and crossing the time (disqualification).

It´s a collection of exercises which are to show if the horse is in his top physical ability obedient and subjected to its rider. The required exercises are short, medium and accelerated step, gallop and trot, shrinking, changes of the modes, cross-step, traversal way, piurette, piaf.
Dressure exercises of th lower level are done in the dressur rectangular of the size 40x20m. interanational competitions and competitions of the middle level are done in the rectangular of the size 60x20m. It´s very often that there´s music during the competition which makes the sport artistic.
The father of classic riding was the French Francois R. de la Guérinière whose exercise principals have been used by two most famous horse-riding institutions: The Military riding school in Saumure and Spanish high school in Vienna.

The three-days general capability competition was realized first time in the olympic games in Stockholm in 1912 and it was designed for soldiers. It´s the hardest competition which required from the horse highest efficiency, speed, endurance, courage and mainly ability to overcome all obstacles.
The 1st day the dressure part takes place. The 2nd day the competitions are aimed at speed and endurance in cross-country trial. The lenght of the track is 25 km. This phase consists of flat part, motorway and steeplechase which is 3,2 km long and it has 32 obstacles. The whole track means for rider nad horse 1 hour and half hour of unbelievable hard work.

Last day is the veterinary examination and the jumping competitions. Dressure is rated for 3 points, speed and endurance 12 and showjumping 1 or 2.

Polo, which is during the whole time played in gallop, is one of the quickest games in the world. Origin of this game is game is in Persia and China something like 2500 years ago and it was brought to Europe by British soldiers. We can compare it to the "hockey on horses". There are two teams and two referees on the field. One team consists of 4 players sitting on small, specially trained horses called polo-poneys. The size of the playground is 275x180 m. The aim of the game is to place the wooden ball with the hammer into the rival´s goal and score as much as possible. The distance between the goal beams is 3m. The players are moving at the highest speed. After scoring the teams change the sides. The match is divided into 7 and half minute periods, so called "chukkas". Each period the horses are changed. The penalty points are avorded for such defaults as dengerous crossing of the competitors track or crash.
The game is played with wooden hammers with long handles and a small hard ball. The players wear hard helmet, T-shirts, white riding trousers, brown highboots, knee shetlers and leather gloves.

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