Elizabethan Age

Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 21. ledna 2007
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Elizabethan Age

Before the death of Mary I. , she acknowledge her half sister Elizabeth as heir to the throne. On her accession Elizabeth I. - 1558 - 1603 - was 25 years old. After the death of her mother Anne Bolaine, she was removed from the Court.
Later after Edward VI. (her brother) was born she was taken to the Court again and was educated as a prince. She was given the best tutors and received the same education as the future king. She was much respected for her intelect and knowledge. During the reign of Mary I., Elizabeth was imprisoned in Tower for some time, under suspicion of conspiracy. In the first years of her reign, Elizabeth in the advice of Sir Henry, reestablished the supremacy of national Church of England. She passed an act which made her a governor od the Church as well as of the state but she did not claimed the titul of Supreme Head. She continued in the policy of compromise and tolerance, for both Catholics and Protestants.
As England was in a poor economic situation, Elizabeth tried to preserve peace, to save the country from the expense of war, both at home and abroad. At her Court, Eliz. surrounded herself with poets, musicians and dramatists, paid companies of actors performed before and thus provided entertainment for herself and for her noblemen. Her reign was the golden age of literature and drama, as well as for other arts. She was also called Virgin Queen.There were many European princess who longed to control England, as Philip II. of Spain and princess of Austria, France and Sweden.Eliz. kept them in hoping and thus managed the peace with their countries, she remained unmarried. Dissapointed by Eliz. hesitation and insulated by English marytime policy towards Spain, Philip II. started plotting with Scotland. He attempted to have Eliz. assassinate and replace by Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, who was next inline to the English throne and an ortodox Catholic. But in 1568 Mary was obliged to fly from Scotland before the rebelions Scottish Protestants. She asked for her refuge in England, however her refuge became her prison as she was involved in several attempts to murder Eliz. Finally, Eliz. signed Mary´s death warrant and had Mary executed in 1587. Elizabeth realized that the execution of Mary would mean war with Spain. For many years English seamen captured Spanish treasure ships on their way from South America.

The English also carried slaves from Africa and sold them to the Spanish colonies, although they were forbidden to do so.
Elizabeth expressed her regret to the Spanish Emssadon, who knew well, that the English pirates gave her a share of their profits and that she had knighted one of her leaders Francis Drake. England also sent help to the Protestant Dutch who were in revolt against the Spanish king. In 1588 Philip II. tried to invade England and to take throne by force. A great fleet called Armada crossed the chanel but luckily for the English, the stormy weather wrecked for many ships. Many other ships were destroyed by English guns. The rest sailed into the North sea and round Scotland island to Spain. By this battle England won supremacy in sea power for herself. In 1579 Walter Daleigh explored the eastern coast of North Americam and in 1584 he founded there the first English colony - Virginia, on honour to the Queen. .

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