Compound, complex and multiple sentence

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Compound, complex and multiple sentence

1. COMPOUND SENTENCE

 consists of two or more main clauses, which are independent on each other
 clauses are connected by coordinating conjunctions (such as and, and then, but, for, nor, or, so, yet, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but), adverb or adverbial phrase
 using these conjunctions we can express
- addition (and, neither…nor)
I washed the dishes and cleaned the kitchen
- continuation (and then)
I was reading a book and then I watched TV.
- contrast (but, yet)
John phoned this morning, but he didn’t leave a message.
- choice (or, either…or)
We can stay at home or have a dinner in a restaurant.
- result (so)
She didn’t show up at the party, so I went home.
- reason (for)
We don’t usually eat out, for we can’t afford it.
 when the subject is identical in all parts of the sentence, it’s not necessary to repeat it
 the subject is usually repeated after so
 the subject must be repeated after for
 there isn’t usually a comma in front of and
 there is often a comma in front of other conjunctions



2. COMPLEX SENTENCE

 consists of one main clause and one or more dependent clauses
 dependent clause is subordinate to the main clause
 clauses are connected by subordinate conjunctions (such as after, when, that, whether, since…), relative pronouns
 there are three main types of dependent clauses
- nominal clauses
- relative clauses
- adverbial clauses

2.1 NOMINAL CLAUSE
 may function as a subject, object or subject complement
 there are four types of nominal clauses
- nominal declarative clauses
- nominal interrogative clauses
- nominal exclamative clauses
- nominal relative clauses

2.1.1. NOMINAL DECLARATIVE CLAUSE
 derived from statement
 sometimes called ‘that clauses’, because the typical conjunction for this type of clause is that
 nominal declarative clause is often used after ‘reporting verbs’ (such as tell, say, know, think)
 that can be usually omitted
It’s a shame (that) you have to leave.

2.1.2 NOMINAL INTERROGATIVE CLAUSE
 derived from question
 there are two types of nominal interrogative clauses
- derived from yes/no questions
- conjunctions if, whether
- used after ‘reporting verbs’ (such as tell, ask, want to know)
Ask her if she’s alright.

- derived from question word questions
- used after the same reporting verbs as above
- the question itself (with not inverted word order) creates the nominal interrogative clause
Tell me what did you do yesterday.

2.1.3 NOMINAL EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSE
 derived from exclamation
I remember what a brilliant time we had at your party.
 main clause can contain anticipatory it
It is incredible how fast she can run.

2.1.4 NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE
What I want is a hot bath.
Whoever broke the window should confess now.

2.2 RELATIVE CLAUSE
 are introduced with relative pronouns (who, whom, which, whose, that)
 who, whom and that are used when we refer to people
 which and that are used when we refer to animals and things
 when these pronouns have a function of a subject of the relative clause we can’t omit them
He is the man who/that loves me.
 when these pronouns have a function of an object of the relative clause we can omit them
He is the man who(m)/that I love.
 prepositions in relative clauses can be placed
- in front of the relative pronoun
She is the person to whom I was talking.
- at the end of the relative clause
She is the person who(m) I was talking to.
- we can omit the relative pronoun and place the preposition at the end of the relative clause
She is the person I was talking to.
 when we refer to people, whose is used instead of possessive adjectives
She is the woman whose child was killed in the car crash yesterday.
 we distinguish two types of relative clauses (according to the importance of the information they give us)
- restrictive (defining) clause
- give us essential information
- can’t be omitted
- commas are not used
The guy who helped me with my homework was Tom’s brother.
- non-restrictive (non-defining) clause
- give us additional information
- can be omitted
- commas are used
My boyfriend, who lives in London, phoned me yesterday.

2.3 ADVERBIAL CLAUSE
- there are many types of adverbial clauses
 time
- answers the question When?
- we use conjunctions such as when after, as, as soon as, before, by the time that, once, since, until, till, while
I met him when I was in London.
 place
- answers the question Where?
- conjunctions where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere
You can play anywhere you want.
 manner
- answers the question How?
- conjunctions as, (in) the way (that), (in) the same way, as if, as though
It sounds as if it’s raining.

 reason
- answers the question Why?
- conjunctions because, as, seeing (that), since
She moved out from her parents because she wanted to life on her own.
 contrast
- conjunctions although, considering (that), though, even though, even if, much as, while, whereas, however + adjective or adverb
I’m going to buy the bike even though I know it’s too expensive.
 purpose
- conjunctions so that, in order that, in case
- after in case simple present or should must be used
Take an umbrella with you in case it rains.
 result
- conjunctions so + adjective (that), such + noun (that)
He’s such a lunatic (that) he would do anything.
 comparison
- conjunctions as…as, not so…as, not as…as, than
- after as and than object pronoun or subject + verb is used
He is as crazy as me.
He is as crazy as I am.

3. COMPOUND-COMPLEX (MULTIPLE) SENTENCE

- consists of two or more main clauses and one or more dependent clauses
I will phone my boyfriend, who lives in London, and tell him about my birthday party, that is next week.

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