Kategorie: Angličtina (celkem: 879 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 12. března 2007
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What is caving? It`s question also for me and I`m not sure if it is sport or activity. I think it depends on the man who is caving. But the definition says that caving is the exploration of natural underground space, usually formed with water activity in limestone rock.
It is an adventure sport and as such has it`s inner risks. But with good guidance, training and good equipment, these risks can be reduced to a reasonable level.
Many people ask me a question why I like caving. I think it's the exploration of the unknown. It's the thrill of walking somewhere where no one else has walked. It`s a beautiful feeling to be the first human who brings light into a place that has never had light, and to see what is there. I think it`s amazing, that in today's times of high-tech satellites, an ordinary person like myself can walk out of my house, and a half-hour later, be the first human to stand somewhere that yesterday no one knew it even existed.. Millions of people may come after me, but I can say I was the first. Caving, as well as being an energetic sport, can also be a fascinating science known as 'Speleology'. What is cave?

Now something about a cave. A Cave is an underground space formed with water activity in limestone rock. There are more types of caves. Many caves are wet, it means that there in the cave usually flow smalls river. To this category of caves belongs The Demänovska cave in Low Tatras. Other caves are dry and muddy. Some have vertical sections known as 'meanders', where ropes and ladders are used for exploration. These are called 'potholes' (priepasť in Slovak language). A special kind of a cave is an ice cave, for example The Demänovska ice cave.

What should we do before we go into a cave?

Before you go down you must recognize that caving is a sport that can't be done on your own and you always need to go down with other people. The best way to begin caving is to join a club. There is in each area of Slovakia one or more clubs. In Dolny Kubin it`s called Speleoklub Orava. All clubs in Slovakia create The Slovak Speleological Society. You can go down only with a member of the caving club, because only they can visit these caves.

Basic Equipment

If you want to go in a cave, you must have some basic equipment. The first times you can borrow it from local club. LAMP – you can used any lamp provided it can be attached to your helmet to leave your hands free.

You must realise that caves are absolutely dark and you are completely lost without a certain lamp. Two types of lamps are used in caves: electric lights and carbide lamps. Electric lights are more simple but a carbide lamp is more certain. Carbide lamps use calcium-carbide which reacts with water and the result is Acetylene gas which is flammable.
HELMET WITH CHIN STRAP - every caver recognizes the fact that caves have uneven walls, ceilings and floors. You will hit your head at some point during a trip. Any helmet should also have a chin strap in order to keep the helmet on your head in the event of a fall. When thinking about wearing a helment, consider this : how important is your head to you?
SMALL PACK - to carry your gear in the cave. It should have good closure so that things don't fall out, and should be rather durable. It shouldn't have zippers - they get clogged with mud and become useless. This pack is made of ballistic nylon which is extremely resistant to abrasion.
CLOTHES – the best is if you have waterproofing overall, but for first times you can use also some old things. Remember that clothes you have in cave will be totaly dirty and may be also ragged.
COMPLETE CHANGE OF CLOTHES - For after the trip. This includes socks, shoes, and underwear! This stays outside the cave. Anything that you take into many caves will be ruined forever. Caves are hard on your equipment, your clothes and you. Other useful items to wear are boots, gloves and kneepads. The boots should be sturdy and provide ankle support. Gloves are very important to protect your hands from the harsh environment found in caves. Kneepads are a must if the cave that you will be exploring requires much crawling along passages with low ceiling. Safety

Caves are potentially hazardous places. In some cases there may be loose rocks, vertical drops or a risk of flooding.
Anyone visiting a cave should leave a written note with details of where they are going and expected time of return. This is known as a "Call Out" and should be left with a reliable person. You should also keep some rules of caving.  Always include experienced cavers in the party.
 Never cave alone.
 Take notice of the local weather forecast and ground conditions of the previous few days, because flooding can happen very quickly and violently.  Have one reliable headlamp for each person. Without light you are lost.
 Take secondary lights, food and first aid kit.
 Have boots, helmets and warm clothes. They are essential.

Accident underground is always easy but rescue is difficult and sometimes impossible. Caves and caving in Slovakia

Slovakia is very famous country in the world of caving, because there are many cave areas. All mountains, that are built up with limestone rock are full of caves. The number of caves and potholes in Slovakia is 4150. This count will rise every year because many caves are still not discovered. For public is open only 12 of these 4150 caves.
Caves in Slovakia are among to the longest and deepest caves in the Central Europe. The deepest Slovak cave - Stary hrad – is situated in Demänovske vrchy and it`s 432 meters deep. The longest cave is a Systeme of Demänova caves which is 31 kilometers long. But Slovak caves are interesting also for their features. The Ochtinska aragonit cave is famous with sinter decoration and The Krásnohorská Cave with Rožňava Cavers' Stalagmite, which is 32,6 m high and appears in the Guinness Book of Records as The biggest stalagmite in the world. Orava region

Caves in the Orava region are concentrated in Roháče, Chočské vrchy and Malá Fatra. In the area of Orava there are together 107 caves and 21 potholes. The longest is Brestova cave in Roháče. It is 1450 meters long. This is also the most famous cave in the Orava region, because there is active water-course. It means that in the cave flows small stream. The deepest pothole is Pothole in Sivý vrch. It has 93 meters. The nearest cave is Cave in Ostra skala near to Vysny Kubin.

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