British Overseas Explorations

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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British Overseas Explorations

English kings always have the tendency to occupy the countries on the European continent. During the Hundred Years War English crown gained significant territory in France under their control, but at the end of it England had only port Calais. Since 1492 England have had the ambition to expand even to the New World. They were naval great power and their rival was Spain.
Among the English were several significant explorers. Giovanni Cabot came from Venice to Bristol and he obtained the permission for overseas explorations from the king Henry VII. In 1497 he sailed round the south coast of New Foundland and the year after he reached western coast of North America. He wanted to reach western coast of Asia as well as Columbus. His son Sebastian Cabot was brilliant sailman as well. He initiated establishment of Trade company, which sent three boats to explore northeast way to China. One of them went to White sea and estuary of river Dvina. He was surprised they were in Russia. This lead to the progress of trade between Russia and England.
The most important discoverer was Sir Francis Drake who was supported by Queen Elisabeth I. He sailed round the world as the 2nd person in the world. In 1577 he began his way from Plymouth; on the way he robbed Spanish and Portuguese ships. He reached Kapverds and then he sailed across Atlantic Ocean to the coast of Brazil. Then he went through Magalhaes’ canal to Pacific Ocean. One ship was sunk and one returned back to England. The last one cruised along the American coast, robbing Spanish ports and ships. He wanted to sail round the northern coast of America, but there was too cold so he went back. He decided not to go through the Magalhaes’ canal because of the blockade of Spanish ships, so he sailed across Pacific Ocean, he reached Java than he carried on around Cape of Good Horn and along the African coast. He got back to Plymouth. He brought potatoes and tobacco to Europe.
With regards to the exploration of eastern seaboard of the New World was important Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1584 he attempted to colonize Virginia which was successfully established in 1627. Many members of the Church of England known as Puritans decided to move to America because they were persecuted at home. Soon after in 1620, first 13 English colonies were established. The English kings ruled these colonies. The king required high taxes on many goods imported to the colonies.

This policy lead to the War of Independence that began by Boston Tea Party in 1773 and end up on the 4th of July in 1776 by signing Declaration of Independence.
In the explorations of the southern hemisphere captain James Cook was well-known. He cruised from Plymouth towards Rio de Janeiro around Cape Hoorn to Tahiti than he turned to New Zealand, which was thought as the edge of Antarctic. He explored its seaboard and sailed through the canal between its two islands. From New Zealand he sailed to the west to Australia. This coast had not been seen before, it was similar to coast of Wales, so he called it New South Wales. Than he continued his way around Cape York and he evidenced that New Guinea is an island and explored northern coast of Australia. By the end of 19th century British crown had these domains:
Europe: Britain and Northern Ireland
Asia: India, Singapore
Africa: Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
America: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu.

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