British history

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  • Datum přidání: 23. července 2006
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British history

3000-2000 BC The Iberians inhabit England
700 Invasion of Celtic tribes(Gaels, Brythons, Belgae)
55-54 invasion of Julius Caesar
409 AD The end of Roman rule brought by the barbarians(Scots, Picts)
5th century Saxons&Angles raiding Britain
6th century 10 Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
597 St.Augustine's mission in Kent - Christianity in Britain
9th cent. Danish raids
871 Alfred the Great - king of Wessex - defeats Danes in 9 battles
England divided into 2 parts(Danelaw[NE] and Saxon England[SW])
10th century Danish attacks renewed - D. set a condition for withdrawal-the payment-the Danegeld
1017-1035 Danes on English throne
11th century The Downfall of Saxons - the death of Edward the Confessor(1066), election of Harold
1066 Battle at Hastings-Harold killed and William the Conqueror acclaimed as the king on Xmas Day
1085 Domesday Book - collection of wealth of William's vassals
1100 Henry I(Conqueror's son) reorganizes the judicial system - creates King's Court
1135 19 years long civil war
12th century Plantagenet era - Henry II gains English crown
"Planta genista" - gay yellow broom flower worn by Henry II's father
3 families(Anjous, Lancasters, Yorks)
Henry II gains control of clergy through his courts - a judge in each shire - "Common law"
1189 his son Richard I (Coeur-de-lion) becomes king takes part in 3rd crusade
1199 Henry's son John "Lackland"
1215 accepts Magna Charta-the Great Charter- (the Church may choose its officials, the King must not charge duty on his tenants without their consent, no freeman may be punished except according to the laws of the land)
-1217 civil war
1217 during the reign of Henry III; "Parliament" - council of representatives of the burgesses of towns and 2 knights from each shire (Commons&Knights)
1277 Prince Edward I conquers Wales and starts war with Scots(gains the title of Prince of Wales upon all male heirs)
1337-1453 Hundred Years' War in the reign of Edward III, Henry V, Henry VI.
1348 first attack of plague "The Black Death"
1381 The Peasants' Uprising(to abolish serfdom, to commutate servile dues...)
revolt put down and leaders executed
1455 The Wars of Roses (wars between Lancasters-red and Yorks-white) - in reign of seven kings; last one(Richard III-Yorkist) defeated by 1485 Henry VII Lancaster.

Henry VII married the Yorkist heiress and found new Tudor dynasty.
1509 Henry VIII's accession during his reign -England's break with Rome
(Act of Appeals - English jurisdiction is sprung from the king,
Act of Supremacy - the king is Protector and Supreme Head of English Church and Clergy)
1553 the reign of Bloody Mary(daughter of Henry VIII) tries to converse England back to Catholicism executed about 287 people
1558 Elizabeth I ascends English throne
1588 great defeat of the Spanish armada establishes English supremacy of the seas
1603 accession of James I the Stuart - king of united England, Wales and Scotland
1605 Gunpowder Plot by Guy Fawkes
1607 Pilgrim's Fathers leave Plymouth
1629 Charles I (successor of James) squabbled with Parliament about the Divine Rights of Kings
1640-1649 civil war between Parliament(Oliver Cromwell) and Charles
1649 Charles beheaded, England is the Republic
-1660 Cromwell becomes Lord Protector
1660 Restoration of Monarchy by Charles II Rights of king lowered in parliament - "Whig" as Commons and "Tories" as Royalist
1666 Great Fire of London & Great Plague
1679 Habeas Corpus Act (before imprisoning a person there must be brought a writ)
1687 Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalist Principia Mathematica
1688 landing of William of Orange and James II flies to France
1689 Bill of Rights - no Catholic could ever be sovereign of England establishing Hannover dynasty(George I, II, III, IV and William IV)
1688 The Nine Years' War and The War of Spanish Succession Commander-in-Chief of Br.forces - Marlborough
1707 Act of Union between England and Scotland during queen Anne's reign, the last sovereign; Great Britain formed
1774 invention of James Watt's steam engine
1776 attempt of George III to impose taxes on American colonies results in rebellious war
1783 peace in Versailles grants American independence
1805 defeating French and Spanish fleet at Cape Trafalgar by Lord Nelson
1815 the end of Napoleonic wars at Waterloo by the Duke of Wellington
1837 Accession of Queen Victoria forming Commonwealth(New Zealand-1840,
Canada-1867 and Australia-1900); expansion in South Africa, Egypt, India, Burma and the Pacific
1875 Britain controls the Suez Canal
1860 the Liberal Party emerges
1867 Reform Act by Benjamin Disraeli gives franchise to all householders
1870 Married Women's Property Act extends rights of married women
1901 death of Queen Victoria
1911 National Insurance Bill gives insurance to certain workers for social benefits in times of sickness or unemployment.
28.6.1914 WWI breaks out after assassinating of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
11.11.1918 the end of WWI, the peace is negotiated at Paris
1920 the League of Nation established beginning of era of emancipation
1920 Ireland divided into 2 parts - part of The Commonwealth and Irish Free State
1926 The Great Strike breaks out - 9 days, loss of 160 million work hours
1929-31 The Great Depression - widespread unemployment in Britain
3.9.1939 WWII breaks out; summer 1940 The Battle of Britain - great air battle between
German Luftwaffe and British RAF
1942 turning-point at El Alamein - defeat of "Desert Fox" - Rommel
8.5.1945 the end of WWII in Europe
15.8.1945 after using nuclear weapons Japan surrenders.

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