Vyučovacie zásady

Kategorie: Biológia (celkem: 959 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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Vyučovacie zásady

Tento termín sa v pedagogike používa aj v iných obmenách ako napr.: vyučovacie princípy, didaktické zásady, alebo princípy. Problematika sa v konečnom dôsledku týka a súvisí s obsahom vzdelávania, ale aj s teoretickou analýzou vyučovacieho procesu. Samotnú vyučovaciu zásadu môžeme charakterizovať ako istú požiadavku, ktorá ovplyvňuje vyučovací proces a pôsobí na jeho obsah a rozsah. Počet vyučovacích zásad v histórii pedagogiky prirodzene vzrastá a úplný počet týchto zásad nieje možné presne stanoviť. S rozvíjajúcou sa spoločnosťou sa tieto požiadavky menia, a ich počet bude pravdepodobne stúpať. Taktiež kritérium delenia je podľa mnohých autorov rôzne. Podľa Glockela sa delia na: základné, regulujúce a ďalšie. Alebo iné delenie: ako vyučovacie zásady klasické, novšie zásady, a tzv. najnovšie formulovanie a dotváranie zásad. Dôležité je tiež to, že vyučovacie zásady neexistujú a nevystupujú ako samostatne pôsobiace taxómy, ale jedna druhú ovplyvňujú, vzájomne sa dopĺňajú a podporujú. Tiež nemožno zabudnúť na obe stránky vyučovacej zásady: objektívnu a subjektívnu. Bolo by nesprávne, ak by sme vyučovacie zásady ohraničovali, resp. uvažovali o ich vplyve iba na vzdelávaciu stránku. Mnohé z nich sú spoločné aj pre teóriu výchovy. Nie je správne, ak by sme tvrdili, že vyučovacia zásada je pravidlo. Pri všetkých zásadách platí, že ich treba didakticky správne chápať v priebehu celej vyučovacej hodiny.

Zásada uvedomelosti a aktivity

Ide o istú požiadavku, aby žiaci k učebnej činnosti pristupovali uvedomele a aby vlastnou aktívnou činnosťou získavali nové vedomosti, spôsobilosti, zručnosti a návyky. Uvedomelosť neznamená iba to, aby žiak vedel, čo sa učí, ale aj to, aby si k tomuto vytvoril kladný vzťah. To predpokladá uvedomiť si cieľ, výsledok a metódy, ktoré k nemu vedú. Zo strany učiteľa treba využívať neprestajne motivačné metódy a tiež predchádzajúce vedomosti a poznatky z mimoškolského prostredia, rešpektovať individualitu žiakov a veľa iných dôležitých postupov. Zásada názornosti

Opäť hovoríme o požiadavke, aby žiak získal nové vedomosti, spôsobilosti atď. na základe konkrétneho zmyslového vnímania predmetov a javov. Už Komenský poukazoval na jav, že všetky nové informácie majú byť žiakom zdelené všetkými možnými zmyslovými cestami: len tak totiž môže žiak hlbšie fixovať nové vedomosti.

Samozrejme aj druh názornosti musí spĺňať určité podmienky: závisí od:
- vekových osobitostí žiakov (čím je ročník nižší, tým viac pozornosti treba venovať názornému vyučovaniu)
- povahy učiva vyučovacieho predmetu
- fázy vyučovacieho predmetu
Tiež veľmi dôležité je prikladať dôraz na psychologické požiadavky:
- primeranosť názoru (správne voliť pomôcky)
- treba zapájať u detí čo najviac zmyslov
- názornosť musí byť primeraná cieľu hodiny
Funkcie názoru plnia:
- pozorovanie skutočných predmetov a javov
- nepriamy názor (kresby, fotografie, filmy..)
- názorné predstavy (rozprávanie príbehov, porovnávanie..)
- vzťahové prežívanie (prežívanie citov, vzťahov a odvahy..)
Netreba samozrejme pripomínať, že najzákladnejšou pomôckou je tabuľa a krieda.

Zásada primeranosti

Vyjadruje požiadavku, aby obsah a rozsah učiva, ale i metódy jeho sprostredkúvania žiakom boli primerané k ich biologicko- psychologickým schopnostiam. Teda akákoľvek činnosť, ktorá je určená žiakom, musí byť primeraná. Táto zásada veľmi súvisí s individuálnym prístupom učiteľa k žiakovi a tiež s rozvíjajúcim vyučovaním. Zásada trvácnosti

Vyjadruje požiadavku, aby si žiaci učivo bezpečne zapamätali a aby si ho v prípade potreby vedeli vybaviť v pamäti a využiť v činnosti. Čiže nejde len o zapamätanie si učiva, ale ide aj o schopnosť jeho využitia v praxi. Trvácnosť vedomostí žiaka, to nie je iba výsledok ich učebnej činnosti, ale predovšetkým výsledok didaktickej práce učiteľa. Zásada systematickosti

Vyjadruje požiadavku logicky usporiadaného didaktického systému učiva so zreteľom na vekové osobitosti žiakov, ktorý si žiaci systematicky osvojujú pod vedením učiteľa. Táto zásada sa týka jednak obsahu učiva a jednak procesuálnej stránky učiva. Samozrejme závisí od veku žiakov.
Existujú mnohé kritériá tejto zásady, podľa ktorých ju členíme, uvediem pár princípov členenia podľa Cirbesa:
- princíp jednoty vedeckosti, výchovnosti, tvorivosti vyjadruje požiadavku spätosti týchto troch komponentov
- princíp utvárania didaktického prostredia vyžaduje vytvorenie optimálneho didaktického prostredia a tiež sociálneho didaktického prostredia
- princíp jednoty základných činiteľov vyjadrujú spätosť medzi cieľmi, metódami, pomôckami a organizačnými formami vyučovania
- princíp cieľavedomej aktivity a regulácie
- princíp poznávacej spätosti názorného, abstraktného a praxe- ide vlastne o princíp názornosti
- princíp didaktickej optimalizácie predstavuje dosiahnutie vysokej efektívnosti didaktického procesu
- princíp systémovosti a dôkladnosti
Samozrejme existujú ešte mnohé iné delenia tohto princípu.

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