Morfematická stavba slova

Kategorie: Gramatika (celkem: 157 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 07. dubna 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 11899×

Příbuzná témata



Morfematická stavba slova

morféma
- najmenšia významová časť slova
- druhy:
1. koreňová morféma (KM)
- nesie zákl. význam slova
- je rovnaká vo vš. slovách patriacich do 1 čeľade
- k nej sa pripájajú ostatné morfémy
- tvoriť, tvorca, tvorenie, utvorený, tvorba => KM = tvor-

2. gramatická (relačná) morféma (RM)
- nositeľka gramat. významu slova (rod, číslo, pád, osoba)
- pomocou nej sa vyjadrujú vzťahy medzi slovami (matk-e, užitočn-ému)
- môže byť aj nulová (chlap)
- napr.: číta-m, objavova-ť, sed-iac, rob-iaci

3. odvodzovacia (derivačná) morféma (DM)
- mení význam slova
- môže byť predponová (nad-poručík, pre-letieť) al. príponová (skok-an, líšč-í)

4. obmieňacia (modifikačná) morféma (MM)
- nemení význam slova, ale ho obmieňa
- napr. uč-iev-a-ť, mil-š-íefektívn-je-š-í

5. tematická morféma (TM)
- existuje len v slovesách a v slovách od slovies odvodených
- vždy býva medzi koreňovou a gramatickou morfémou
- napr.: nos-í-m, čít-a-m, kup-ova-ť

6. spájacia (interfigovaná) morféma (IM)
- vkladá sa medzi morfémy z hláskoslovných príčin
- kóre-j-ský, čít-a-j-ú, veľk-o-mesto

alternácia
- pravidelná zmena hlások v rámci morfémy vyvolaná hláskovým okolím
- vták - vtáci, Čech - Česi


uč - i - teľ - k - in - 0
KM TM DM DM DM RM

naj - ne - ob - hospod - ár - ova - teľ - nej - š - í
DM DM DM KM DM DM DM DM MM RM

pred - škol - áč - k - am
DM KM DM DM RM

čes - k - o - slov - en - sk - ý
KM DM IM KM DM DM RM

spol - u - hlásk - a
KM IM KM RM

naj - ne - vy - s - pyt - a - teľ - n - je - ší
DM DM DM DM KM TM DM DM MM RM

pred - vol - áv - a - j - ú
DM KM MM TM TM RM

prac - ov - a - ť
KM DM TM RM.

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