Metódy sebapoznania

Kategorie: Psychológia (celkem: 208 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 13999×

Příbuzná témata



Metódy sebapoznania

OBSAH

Úvod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1. Metódy sebapoznania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
a) Pravidelná registrácia vlastného chovania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
b) Rodina a priatelia ako zdroj informácií. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
c) Nazvať veci pravým menom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
d) Denník. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
e) Pozorovanie vlastných emócií a afektov a sebareflexia. . . . . . . . . 4

Záver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Použitá literatúra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6




















ÚVOD

Keď som zbadal témy seminárnych prác, pravdu povediac, veľmi som sa potešil. z akej širokej škály si môžem vybrať. Zaujala ma takmer každá. No a práve vtedy som prišiel na to, že mám problém vybrať si len jednu. Po dlhšej úvahe som sa rozhodol, že nosnou črtou mojej seminárnej práce bude sebapoznanie, pretože mnohé iné témy súvisia práve s týmto problémom.
Ako? Ako môžme napr. rozprávať o sebadôvere bez sebapoznania? Ako zistím svoje komplexy bez sebapoznania? Ako sa pozriem na vzťah svojej životosprávy a duševného zdravia bez sebapoznania? .. Takto by som samozrejme mohol pokračovať ďalej, pretože si uvedomujem, že sebapoznanie sa bytostne týka každej súčasti môjho života.
A je tu ešte jeden dôvod, prečo som si zvolil túto tému. Zdá sa mi, že v dnešnej dobe si nechávame príliš málo priestoru na sebapoznanie. Oveľa radšej „poznávame” iných, teda kritizujeme, ohovárame a hľadáme chyby. Veľakrát skutočne vidíme brvno v oku iných a vo vlastnom nevidíme ani smietku. Teda čas nad písaním tejto seminárnej práce chcem tak trošku využiť aj pre seba a pozrieť sa na problém z viacerých strán. 1. METÓDY SEBAPOZNANIA

V prvom rade musím podotknúť, že sebapoznanie je predpokladom sebavýchovy. Možno mnohí by sa opýtali (a verím tomu, že to tak je): Načo nám je sebavýchova? Je pravdepodobné, že istý čas sa bez sebavýchovy zaobídeme. Je to hlavne čas puberty a dospievania, ked sú mladým ľuďom tolerované ich „výkyvy”. A možno i nejaký čas potom.

Akonáhle však vstúpime do vážnejších spoločenských i osobných vzťahov a nezačneme nasebe pracovať v oblasti sebavýchovy, dostaneme sa do mnohých problémov, ktoré, ak ostanú nepovšimnuté a neriešené môžu neskôr vážne narušiť naše duševné zdravie. Neraz si to, žiaľ, neuvedomujeme a až po rokoch prichádzame na to, ako sme mali daný problém riešiť. Vtedy na to určite trebalo menej námahy. Podobne sa správame i v iných oblastiach nášho života. Teda neriešime problémy hned ako sa vyskytnú, ale čakáme. Často samy nevieme na čo, ale pasívny postoj sa u nás Slovákov dá vypozorovať aj menej zdatným pozorovateľom v akejkoľvek oblasti. Prístupov k sebapoznaniu je samozrejme veľa a preto som si vybral aspoň niektoré, ktoré ma zaujali, a ktoré sú ľahko využiteľné v našom každodennom živote.

a) Pravidelná registrácia vlastného chovania

Niektorí to môžu nazvať spytovanie svedomia. Akokoľvek to nazveme, pri sebapoznávaní je to nevyhnutné. Sám na sebe vidím, že to často zanedbávam a potom mi vo vzťahoch unikajú mnohé vieci a tie isté chyby opakujem zbytočne. Dnešnái generácia si nevie nájsť čas, stíšiť sa, prjsť si deň s jeho radosťami i problémami, no a na komunikáciu o prežitých dojmoch, na tú už v dnešných rodinách takmer niet času. Televízia a internet často nahrádzajú komunikáciu a mnohí sa potom čudujeme, že vôbec existuje fenomén ako sociálna fóbia. Nezažívame už teplo rodinného krbu pri zapálenej sviečke, v intímnom rodiinom prostredí, kde cez ticho a príjemnú atmosféru je možné dostať sa ku komunikácii. b) Takto som sa dostal k ďalšej metóde a to : rodina a priatelia ako zdroj informácií

Možno by sa našlo dosť ľudí, ktorí by nám vedeli povedať o nás veci, ktoré si my samy na sebe nevšímame, ale.. boli by sme ochotní ich aspoň počúvať? A to už nemyslím na ich prijatie! Čo nám v tom bráni? Pýcha, nedôverčivosť, sklamanie .. ?

c) Nazvať veci pravým menom

Tu existuje další problém. Nevieme, alebo nechceme presne nazvať naše nedostatky a zlyhania. Obchádzame ich, vyhovárame sa, prekrúcama fakty, aj napriek tomu, že existujú jasné hranice v správaní. Či si už vezmeme mravné alebo právne normy. A existencia svedomia nám takmer zaručuje, že keby sme svoje vnútro otvorili pred sebou a nezakrývali ho často falošným rúškom, prišli by sme poľahky na to, v čom máme probôém, kde máme hľadať chybu a to ja sosobne vidím už ako takmer vyriešený problém. Pretože je tu ochota spolupracovať, hľadať riešenie a nachádzať ho. Nehovorím, že to ide rýchlo a ľahko, ale uvedomenie si problému a jeho pomenovanie je jhlavným krokom k jeho vyriešeniu. d) Denník

I písomné zaznamenávanie si našich pocitov, ale i faktov každodenného života nám môže pomôcť pri sebapoznávaní.

Ja osobne by som tu kládol dôraz na spätné uvedomenie si udalostí. Z toho môžme vidieť progres, porovnať ako sa nám darilo zvládať podobné situácie, ako je to teraz a čo môžem pre to ešte urobiť. Po rokoch môže byť denník i takpovediac, zdrojom zábavy, keď sa už len s úsmevom vrátime k situáciám, s ktorými sme si nevedeli rady a dnes si môžme povedať, že sme pokročili a dané situácie zvládame oveľa ľahšie. e) Pozorovanie vlastných emócií a afektov a sebareflexia

Je ideálne, ked sa dostaneme na takýto stupeň sebapoznávanie a začneme si naše emócie všímať, identifikovať ich a zamýšľať sa nad nimi. Je tu opať fakt, že si na to streba nájsť čas a stíšiť sa. Chvíľka ticha, i keď v dnešných ťažkých bytových pomeroch to môže byť niekedy problém, môže byť zdrojom načerpania síl do celého dňa. Vo chvíľke ticha si môžme rozanalyzovať naše príjemné i nepríjemné správanie, povzbudiť sa k istým istým predsavzatiam a každodenne sa môžme spätne vraciať k ich dodržiavaniu alebo nedodržiavaniu.

ZÁVER

Je iste ešte mnoho možností, ako sa sebaspoznávať. Každému z nás však vyhovuje niečo iné, preto iba na nás, na našom pozorovaní záleží i to, akú metódu si zvolíme pre tento účel. Samozrejme, že poznanie metód nie je vyčerpaním sepapoznávania, ale je jeho prvým predpokladom. Preto som sa v tejto krátkej úvahe venoval práve metódam. Myslím si, že pri ich aplikácií sa môže človek veľmi obohatiť a dospieť k záverom, ku ktorým sa inak dospieť nedá. Ani štúdiom, ani pozeraním televízie, počúvaním rozhlasu, či surfovaním po internete. Je mojím prianím, aby sme si to všetci uvedomovali a tak mohli prinášať do vzťahov niečo nové, robiť ich krajšími, tolerantnejšími a pre iných príťažlivšími.

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