London

Kategorie: Geografia (celkem: 1046 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 1492×

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London

London, with its population about 8.000.000 inhabitants is the 9th largest city in the world. It is situated on the Thames and as the capital of both England and Great Britain has a rich ancient history. In the 16th and 17th century its growth was so rapid that Elizabeth 1. and James1. Issued proclamation against any further extension of the town. Another important milestone in the history of London was the Great Fire which broke out in 1666 and destroyed London`s medieval sights. Over three-quarters of the City were burnt down. The rebuilding of the City brought some impovements: main streets were widened, house were of stone. London has the oldest bridge (10th century) and the oldest underground in the world. There are many places of interest. We can see them by walking, or by various means of transport. London famous double-deckers go almost everywhere.
For last transport we can go by the underground. London consists of the City, the East End and the West End. The City is the oldest part of the town where many banks, sights, offices are situated. There you can find beautiful houses for shops, restaurants, theatres, cinemas for the rich. This is the part of luxury, full of lights and advertisement. The East End is not as beautiful as the West End because poor people live there. the streets are narrow and houses are shaby.
Trafalgar Square: is the biggest square in London, called the true heart of London. It was named in honour of the victorious naval battle at Trafalgar in 1805 where Admiral Nelson won over Napoleon. There is a column-Nelson`s Column to commemorate the victory. There are two beautiful fountains tere in which tourists may refresh themselves. There are many pigeons and tourists feed them while resting on the benches. The square is a very popular place for various meeting and demonstrations. At Christmas time a big Christmastree stand there and on New Year`s Eve people gather here at midnight, they sing and dance. There is also the National Gallery in this square. It houses painting by nearly all the great European artists of the past and a large collection of British paintings and sculptures.
The Tower: is the oldest surving place in London.From the 11th century it served many purposes- fortress, a royal palace, aprison (where many kngs and queens and wellknow people were kept and murdered), royal zoo, a treasury. The oldest part is the White tower built as a fortress and family residence by William the Conqueror in 1078.

It is a museum of armour, arms and instruments of torture now. There are also the Crown Jewels displayed there.
Tower Bridge: one of many bridges across the Thames. it os not as old as the Tower. Iis parts can be raised to allow ships to pass.
Buckingham Palace: building known to all as the queen`s official London home. It was originally builtfor the Duke of Buckingham in 1703. In 1837 Queen Victoria made Buckingham Palace ger permanent home- the first monarch to do so- and intorduced the custom by which the Royal Standard is flown to show that the Queen is in residence. In the centre of the building there is a stone bacony where the Royal family appear at festive occasions. Every second day there is arranged the spectacular ceremony of changing the guards
The Houses of Parliament are built at gothic style and they seem to be old too, but they aren`t because in 19th century a fire broke out and destroyed everything with exception of Westminster Hall. But as for the place itself, it has been the seat of goverbnebt since the 11th century. The Hoses are situated on the bank of the Themes near the Westminster bridge. The houses are richly decorated. There are two towers-the Clock tower nicknamed "Big Ben" after the popular prime minister Benjamin Hall who was of a stout figure.The second tower is Victoria Tower from which the Royal standard is flowing if the Queen is present at the opening session of the Parliament. The Parliament consist of two Houses: The House of Lords and The House of Commons, numbers of the later are elected and the queen has no access to this House.
Westminster Abbey is situated at the Parliament Square. It is the place where all the English monarchs have been crowned for over 600 years and many of them also buried. There are also graves of famous artists, writers (Chaucer, Dickens, Shakespeare), scientists(Isaac Newton, Darwin)
St. Paul`s Cathedral is the second largest CHristian church in the world (after St. Peter`s in Rome). It was built after the Great Fire in 1666. It is the place where Prince Charles and Lady Diana were married in 1981. The Cathedral is known for its Whispering Gallery. Standing on this gallery you can clearly hear what is whispered on the opposite side 107 feet far from you.
Piccadilly circus is the center of the West End entertainment world. In the middle there is a statue of Eros.

It is always full of people, it is a very busy place, full of double-deckers and it`s full of lights and neon`s advertisements at night.
Downing street is the undoubtedly the most famous street in London, for no 10 it is the official home of the Prime Minister and has been since Sir Robert Walpole took up residence in 1735.
Madame Tussaud`s is the world famous waxwork museum it`s international display of Kings, Qeens, politicians, stars of films, television and pop and sportsmem
Regent Street and Oxford Street are the most famous shopping centers in London
Parks-St. James` Park, Green Park, The largest of them is Hyde Park. It is also known for its Speaker`s Corner where anybody can have a speech
Museums- the British Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum is the largest museum in the world. It houses many antiquities from ancient Greece, Rome and the Orient, Egyptian mummies, Middle Ages manuscripts.

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