Indiáni

Kategorie: Dejepis (celkem: 1096 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 3332×

Příbuzná témata



Indiáni

Pôvodní obyvatelia Severnej a Južnej Ameriky. Antropológovia ich zvyčajne radia medzi mongolské národy , považujú ich aj za zvláštnu výraznú rasovú skupinu .Indiáni rôznej etnickej príslušnosti sú spolu s Inuitmi ( Eskimákmi ) a Aleuťanmi ( obyvateľmi Aleutských ostrovov ) , ktorí sú bezpochyby Mongolmi , obývali Nový Svet na konci 15. st. Keď sa k jeho brehom doplavili prví európski moreplavci. Ich predkovia prišli na americký kontrinent zo severovýchodnej Ázie asi pred 50 000 až do 12 000 rokmi , ke´d boli obidva kontinenty spojené na mieste dnešného Beringovho prielivu. Najstaršie dôkazy svedčia o tom ,že americký kontinent bol osídlený pred 15 000 rokmi , ale nálezy v Mexiku , Chile a v Brazílii naznačujú , že osídlenie tu bolo pred 30 000 či viac rokmi. Je možné ,že Inuiti a Aleuťania sú potomkami poslednej a viacerých samostatných kolonizačných vĺn. Priplávali do Ameriky a osídlili ju v posledných 5 000 rokoch. Prví kolonisti si so sebou priniesli len kamenné nástroje a priviedli azda aj zdomácnené psy. Zver lovili zahrotenými kopijami, zbierali lesné plody a postupne rozšírili na juh kontinentu. Indiánske poľnohospodárstvo sa vyvíjalo celkom odlišne ako v Starom svete. Jeho začiatky spadajú do obdobia asi pred 7 000 rokmi. Bolo založené na pestovaní kukurice , tekvíc a fazule , v oblastiach tropických pralesov sa pestovala kasava ( maniok ). Pretože okrem lamy a morčiat sa na zdomácnenie nevyskytovali nijaké vhodné zvieratá a nenexistovali ani zvieratá ťažné , vývoj rozmanitejšieho obrábania pôdy pokračoval veľmi pomaly. Od roku 1000 p.n.l. roľníci v Andách získali zručnosť v kovorytectve. V Južnej a v Strednej Amerike vznikli hierarchizované spoločnosti , ktoré sa vyvinuli do veľmi vyspelých civilizácií napr. Aztékov a Inkov , väčšina z nich sa však po príchode Conquistadorov a iných európskych kolonizátorov v 16. st.rozpadla.
Príchodom kolonizátorov sa začala tragédia indiánskeho národa .

H2O
il-terezqa, pokec.sk | 08. května 2010
ahojjte mi mame mat do skoly zvyky indianov prosiimm poslite mi nieco o toom :D dakujem
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