Choroby nervovej sústavy

Kategorie: Biológia (celkem: 970 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 12. března 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 13232×

Příbuzná témata



Choroby nervovej sústavy

Ľudská mozgová sústava je mozgovo-miechová. To znamená, že impulzy vytvárané v centre mozgu sú sprevádzané periférnym nervovým systémom k tkanivám. Centrálny nervový systém tvorí mozgová kôra , podkôrové centrá, biela hmota mozgu, neurohypofýza a akýsi prechod medzi nervovou a hormonálnou sústavou. Periférny nervový systém je zabezpečený miechou a periférnymi nervovými vláknami. Ochorenia nervového systému môžeme rozdeliť z viacerých hľadísk: príčina, druh postihnutia, lokalizácia postihnutia a inak. Môžu byť vrodené alebo získané. Získané môžu byť podmienené, buď zápalom alebo fyzikálnym porušením základne nervových buniek a nepodmienené. Zaraďujeme tu úrazy a cievne mozgové príhody. V súčasnosti najvýznamnejší spoločenský problém tvoria cievne mozgové príhody (porážky) ako civilizačné ochorenie. Je prejavom neadekvátneho prístupu jedinca a celej spoločnosti k riešeniu problému zdravej životosprávy t. J. Správania sa pri strese a výživy, t. J. Nerešpektovanie požiadaviek organizmu na relax, na pomerný prísun výživných látok, chronické pôsobenie jedov, ktoré sú do prírody produkované priemyselnými podnikmi alebo úmyselne požívané za účelom ovplyvnenia fyziologickej funkcie nervovej sústavy, ako je tomu pri alkohole, fajčení alebo požívaní drog. Aj samotná výživa má byť zložená tak, aby pôsobila ochranne na cievny systém mozgu. Následne po poškodení cievneho riečiska dochádza k rozvoju nedokrvenia mozgových buniek, čo sa môže prejaviť ich postupným odumieraním, prejavom je predčasné starnutie mozgu, ako je to pri demencii alebo Parkinsonovej chorobe, alebo ak dôjde k náhlemu uzáveru tepny zásobujúcej skupinu buniek, ktorá má za úlohu vykonávať niektorú funkciu organizmu. Príkladom je porážka na ischemickom podklade, s prejavmi ochrnutia niektorej alebo viacerých častí tela. Ostatné funkcie organizmu pritom nemusia byť ovplyvnené. Napríklad chorý po porážke nemusí vedieť rozprávať , pretože odumreli bunky, ktoré spracúvavajú podnet z kôry mozgovej a realizujú prenos impulzov z centra na perifériu, ale hovorenému alebo čítanému slovu postihnutý bezchybne rozumie. Iným príkladom je porážka na podklade prasknutia tepny, vtedy zvyčajne dochádza k devastácií väčšieho okruhu mozgových buniek a k väčším stratám funkcií organizmu až po úmrtie. Týmto chorobným stavom sa dá predísť aspoň značnej časti prípadov a to predchádzaním a liečením ďalších ochorení, ktoré napomáhajú poškodeniu cievneho systému: tučnoty, vysokého tlaku krvi a cukrovky.

Inou príčinou zániku mozgových buniek sú zápaly. Môžu postihnúť obaly mozgu ale aj samotné mozgové tkanivo, podľa druhu vyvolávajúceho agensu môžu byť vírusové a bakteriálne. Typickým vírusovým zápalom bola v minulosti mozgová obrna. Toho času sú to zápaly podmienené pomalými vírusmi, v súčasnosti najznámejší vírus choroby šialených kráv – ktorého prenos na človeka je možný požitím infikovaného a zle pripraveného mäsa a výrobkov. Ďalšou príčinou poškodenia nervovej sústavy je mozgo-miešna skleróza, kde podklad lekárska veda doposiaľ nepozná, hovorí len o degeneratívnom ochorení mozgových buniek , ktoré sú naprogramované tak, že predčasne zanikajú.

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