British System of Government

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 01. července 2007
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British System of Government

Official name: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Political system: Constitutional monarchy without a written constitution; there are Acts of Parliaments and conventions

Executive power of the state
There are two heads of the country:
1. the official head - the monarch (today queen Elizabeth II from the house of Windsor, she has been queen since 1952)
- she can act only on the advice of her ministers and she is not responsible (/she doesn't bear responsibility) for the deed, the ministers are responsible
- Her majesty the Queen

2. the real head - the prime minister (today Tony Blair) and the Cabinet - the seat of the PM and C is 10, Downing Street

the Cabinet
- about 20 seniors ministers selected by prime minister personally
- Cabinet and prime minister have brief sessions at least one a week regularly and there is no voting, the final decision is up to the prime minister
- (the 1st PM of GB - Robert Walpole, 1721)

- the modern government is arranged in about 15 departments (ministerstvá) with ministerial head - the minister with the title "The Secretary of State for…"
- every Secretary of State has 2 or 3 "Ministers of State for…" - their are second in importance, in hierarchy
- The Secretary of State for finance = "Chancellor of Exchequer" - archaic title, seat: 11, Downing Street

Law-making power of the state
- the highest low-making body of Britain is the British Parliament

1215 - Magna Charta Libertatum (The Great Charter of Liberties)
- for the 1st time is stated that the king is not above the law
- it was signed by John the Lackland from the house of Plantagenet

- the 1st sitting of parliament was in 1295 - 1st parliament was held under the king Edward I
- in 17107 - the Scottish parliament was abolished (abolishment of), now the Scottish parliament in Edinburgh is again

Parliament consists of:
1. The House of Lords (about 900) - members have hereditary right
- life peers - they are given that title for great achievements and it is only for that person
- 26 Lords Spiritual - the Church of England, Anglican Church - archbishops and bishops)

2.

The House of Commons (650) - they are elected for 5 years at a general election

- the are two major parties: Labour Party (which is since 1997 in power; The majesty's of Government) and Conservative Party (Her majesty's opposition)

flag
- the union Jack
- it consists of flags (3 crosses) of England (blue), Scotland (white) and Ireland (red)

emblems
England - red rose
Scotland - thistle (bodliak)
Ireland - shamrock (ďatelinový štorlístok)
Wales - leek and daffodil (pór a narcis)

nation anthem
God save the Queen.

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