Barock

Kategorie: Nemčina (celkem: 233 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 01. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 7169×

Příbuzná témata



Barock

Das barocke Zeitalter
Der Begriff Barock wurde vermutlich von dem portugiesischen barroco = schiefrunde Perle, oder von dem italienischen baroco = rhetorische Figur der Übertreibung, abgeleitet. Ursprünglich ein negativer gemeinter Begriff, der alles Regelwidrige, Formlose, dem guten Geschmack Widersprechende bezeichnet; seit Ende des 17./18. Jahrhunderts ist der Begriff üblich, aber erst Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts wurde er auf die literarische Entwicklung zwischen Humanismus und Aufklärung übertragen. Als Epochenbegriff ist der Barock gültig, als Stilbegriff ist er wegen seiner Uneindeutigkeit umstritten. Die Wurzeln des Barocks liegen in Italien, später breitete sich die neue Kunstrichtung nach Spanien, Portugal, Österreich, Süddeutschland und Lateinamerika aus.
Noch heute steht ,,Barock" für pralle Formen , üppige Schlemmereien und ausschweifende Gelage. Wenn man an Barock denkt, denkt man an die prachtvollen Kirchen und Klosteranlagen, Palastbauten, lebensechte Skulpturen und an die festliche, lebensfrohe Musik. Die ersten Anzeichen des Barock zeigten sich in der Baukunst, hier veränderte man den Bau des Gotteshauses (der Barockkirchen), indem man Langhaus und Zentralraum miteinander verschmelzen ließ, dies wurde bei jedem katholischen Kirchenbau in dieser Epoche angewendet, im Barock herrschte nämlich die Kunst des Katholizismus ( der Gegenreformation), die vor allem in katholischen Ländern wie z. B. Bayern und Böhmen blühte. In diesem Zeitalter herrschte der Absolutismus, das berühmte Beispiel hierfür ist
Ludwig XIV, der hatte alle drei Staatsgewalten innehatte. . Charakteristisch für den Absolutismus war auch die weitgehende politische Entmachtung der Stände und die Zurückdrängung des Adels und des Klerus, wobei die ständische Sozialordnung bestehen blieb. . Dieses Zeitalter war unter anderem sehr von wechselseitigen Feindseligkeiten geprägt: Der dreißigjährige Krieg löste Vanitas -Gedanken und pessimistische Einstellung zum Leben aus. Die türkische Invasion in Österreich verzögerte unter anderem die Ausbildung des Barock im Norden von Europa.

Aufgrund der schweren Bevölkerungsverluste ( 2/3 der Bevölkerung wurden getötet, bis zu 80% der Menschen sind an Seuchen und Epidemien zu Grunde gegangen), der willkürlichen Herrschaft und Unterdrückung im Absolutismus, entwickelte der Barockmensch ein gegensätzliches Lebensgefühl, das diese Epoche formte: Neben panischer Todesangst entfaltete sich eine füllige Lebensgier, neben Jenseitssehnsucht stand Weltfreude, neben Enthaltsamkeit fand man verschwenderischen Luxus. Man wurde trotz der Kriege oder gerade deshalb aufgefordert das Leben zu genießen, diese ungezügelte Lebensgier sieht man nicht nur in der Kunst, man hört es auch in der Musik, die in dieser Epoche komponiert wurde. Die Menschen wollten durch ihre Bedürfnisse und aus ihrer Sehnsucht nach Frieden, all das zeigen, an was es im Barock mangelte, sie wollten ihr Leben verschönern, und deshalb bauten sie Kirchen und Paläste mit übertriebenen Malereien und Statuen. Die Kunst im Barock wurde wie auch in der Renaissance von der Kirche und von der Aristokratie( Adel) gefördert. Das Streben nach Repräsentation verwirklichte sich in der Größe der Kunstwerke. Die Kunst kam vor allem in Rom und in den katholischen Ländern zur vollen Entfaltung, in den protestantischen Gebieten gab es kein geschlossenes Mäzenatentum und deshalb entstanden nur Einzelleistungen.
Die Epoche wurde durch wirtschaftliche, soziale, politische und vor allem aber wissenschaftliche Umwälzungen eingeleitet. Der Name Copernicus stand dabei stellvertretend für diese Umwälzungen. Aber auch Newton, Kepler und Galilei sind bedeutende Vertreter dieser Epoche. Durch diese Umwälzungen kam im Volk ein Gefühl der Unsicherheit auf,(Eitelkeit, Vergänglichkeit und Nichtigkeit). Durch den Religionsstreit zwischen den beiden Glaubengemeinschaften (Konfession) war das Vertrauen zur Kirche gesunken und viele suchten ihr Heil in den neu auftretenden Glaubensgemeinschaften. Es herrschte also ein gegensätzliches Lebensgefühl. Auf der einen Seite stand die pure Lebenslust (Weltbejahung), auf der anderen die Todesangst.
Das für uns typische Leben der Barockzeit vollzog sich hauptsächlichen an den Höfen der Fürsten. Ihr Lebensstiel sowie ihre Lebensgestaltung war vor allem vom Pariser Hof beeinflußt. An den Höfen und in der gehobenen Gesellschaft war Französisch die angesehene Sprache. Abschließend ist zu sagen, daß der Barock eine Zeit ist, die durch große Gegensätze geprägt ist:
Einerseits ist sie die Zeit großer künstlerischen Leistungen , wunderschöner Malereien und
prunkvoller Schlössern, andererseits ist sie auch die Zeit, die durch Krieg, Hunger des Volkes gekennzeichnet ist.
Der Barock ist der letzte gemeinsame europäische Stil, der alle Lebensbereiche formte.

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Es herrschte also ein gegensätzliches Lebensgefühl. Auf der einen Seite stand die pure Lebenslust (Weltbejahung), auf der anderen die Todesangst. lußt.
Es herrschte also ein gegensätzliches Lebensgefühl. Auf der einen Seite stand die pure Lebenslust (Weltbejahung), auf der anderen die Todesangst.
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Einstellung zum Leben aus. Die türkische Invasion in Österreich verzögerte unter anderem die Ausbildung des Barock im Norden von Europa.
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