August Comte - začiatky sociológie

Kategorie: Filozofia (celkem: 214 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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August Comte - začiatky sociológie

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Začiatky sociológie

Sociológia (z lat. societas-spoločnosť,logos-učenie) je veda o zákonitostiach vývinu a fungovania sociálnych systémov,či už globálnych (spoločnosť ako celok),ako aj jednotlivých.Sociológia využíva empirické metódy a študuje vzájomnú spojitosť rôznych sociálnych javov a všeobecné zákonitosti chovania sa ľudí.Ako samostatná veda sa vyformovala sociológia až v 19 storočí.Jedným z významných zakladaťeľov sociológie bol A. Comte.
Čo je charakteristické pre učenie A.Comta?Dal sociológií meno.Comtova sociológia bola pod vplyvom pozitivizmu.Mala v podstate historicko-evolučný charakter.Podľa toho, akú stránku spoločenského života považovali sociológovia v tej dobe za hlavnú, sa delila na viacero prúdov.Pre Comta je však dôležité že bol pri začiatkoch sociológie a pokúsil sa ju vyformavať.V prvých zväzkoch svojho najvýznamnejšieho diela Kurz pozitívnej filozofie (A.Comte-Cours de philosophie positive 1-6,Paris 1830-1842) nazval Comte túto novú vedu termínom sociálna fyzika a až od štvrtého zväzku jeho diela sa objavuje názov sociológia.Potom čo dal Comte novej vede meno,zaradil ju do sovojej systematizácie vied.V nej Comte zoradil vedy nasledovne : matema-tika,astronómia,fyzika,chémia,biológia a sociálna fyzika resp. sociológia.Pre túto jeho systematizáciu sú charakteristické dva prvky.Po prvé,Comte vydelil sociológiu z filozofie,etiky a iných spoločenských vied.Po druhé,sociológiu zaraďuje za biológiu,uvádza ju ako pokračovanie biológie čo svedčí o tom,že v jeho sociologií sú zreteľné prvky určitej biologistickej tendencie.
Comte ďalej rozdelil sociológiu na sociálnu statiku a sociálnu dynamiku.Toto jeho rozdelenie sa zakladá na dvoch osobitných pojmoch,na teórií spontánneho poriadku v spoločnosti (théorie do l'orde spontané) a na teórií progresu (théorie du progres).
Idealistická koncencepcia Comtovej sociologickej dynamiky sa prejavuje v tom,že podľa neho ".. o štruktúre každého obdobia i o jej zmene rozhoduje svetonázor,ktorý sa zakladá na vývine rozumových síl.Duchovný a sociálny vývin sú jedno a to isté:dejiny spoločnosti sú dejinamy myslenia."
Za ďalšiu charakteristiku Comtových koncepcií môže považovať,že v sociálnej dynamike rozvíja myšlienku,že dejiny sa vyvíjajú progresívnym smerom.A. Comte hlásal ideu progresu podobne ako A.R. Turgot,C.H.

Saint Simon.Comte dal sociológií meno ,pokúsil sa stanoviť jej miesto v systéme vied a určiť jej predmet a metódu.Keď zdôrazňoval,že sociálne javy nemožno redukovať na prírodné,vydelil sociológiu z prírodných vied,určil úlohy sociológie a v didakticko-pedagogickom zmysle podnietil jej ďalší vývin ako vedy.Tým že oddelil sociológie od filozofie aj od prírodných vied,chápal ju v mnohých pohľadoch utilitaristicky,teda zdôraznil jej spätosť so spoločnosťou.
Jeho známy výrok " Vidieť,aby sme mohli predvídať ,taká je povaha vedy ."(Voir pour prévoir,tel est caractére de la science) bude i naďalej predmetom diskusií pri určovaní vzťahu medzi sociológiou a spoločenskými úlohamy.
Comtemu pripisujeme zásluhy aj na ďalšom vývine sociológie,ale jeho tvorba má aj veľa nedostatkov.Niektoré nedostatky, ktoré charakterizujú Comtovu sociológiu,ako napríklad chápanie sociológie ako sociálnej filozofie,jej identifikovanie s pozitivistickou filozofiou,idealistické chápanie sociálneho pokroku,nedostatok dialektiky v sociálnej dynamike,silné prvky etatizmu,oddelenie statiky od dynamiky atď.,na ktoré upozorňovali niektorý sociológovia (L. von Wiese,G. Gurvitch,G. Bouthoul),zdôrazňovali,že Comte bol viac filozofom ako sociológom.Medzi ďalšie nedostatky môžme zaradiť ajsvojím spôsobom protivedecký biologizujúci prístup k vysvetľovaniu spoločnosti Nemôžme však poprieť jeho význam v procese formovania sociológie,ako osobitej spoločenskej vedy.

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