Architektúra

Kategorie: Umenie (celkem: 301 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 8128×

Příbuzná témata



Architektúra

Každá budova, ktorú vidíte – dom škola letisko – bola navrhnutá nejakým architektom (slovo architekt pochádza z gréckeho slova „architekton“, čo znamená – staviteľ, remeselník). Úlohou architekta je navrhovanie a stavanie budov, ktoré sú atraktívne, funkčné a pohodlné. Architektúra je umenie stavať, ale tiež architektonický štýl. Architektonické štýly sa v priebehu storočí menili a v jednotlivých kultúrach líšili, takže nám môžu veľa povedať o ľuďoch. Staroveký Gréci napríklad stavali jednoduché budovy s harmonicky usporiadanými prvkami, ktoré svedčia o ich zmysle pre poriadok a krásu. Vyvinuli štýl, ktorý nazývame klasická architektúra. Väčšina gréckych stavieb pozostáva zo stĺpov, ktoré podopierali sedlovú strechu. Typy stĺpov sa líšili podľa príslušného klasického „poriadku“ (štýlu), ktorý sa vtedy používal. Všetko bolo jednoduché a rovné. Rimania, ktorí nadväzovali na Grékov, vyvinuli oblúk, klenbu a kopulu. Architekti sú vlastne umelci ktorí vytvárajú budovy. Avšak na rozdiel od iných umelcom musia najprv obhájiť svoje predstavy, svoj projekt až potom sa môže začať stavať. Keby sme chceli postaviť dom, mali by sme sa obrátiť na architekta a dať mu jasné a presné informácie, čo od neho požadujeme. Architekt sa musí dozvedieť, na čo sa dom bude používať, koľko ľudí ho bude obývať, z akého materiálu by mal byť postavený a koľko peňazí by malo byť na stavbu použitých. Dobrý architekt pri projektovaní dbá na to, aby nová stavba bola v súlade s okolitou krajinou a stavbami. Potom ukáže zákazníkove svoje nákresy a plány. Po schválení plánov sa práce na novej stavbe môžu začať.
Americký architekt Frank Lloyd Wright (1869 – 1959) odplynil mnohých architektov. Usiloval sa umiestňovať budovy do ich prirodzeného prostredia a vytvoriť pocit priestoru s malým počtom stien, aby miestnosti plynule prechádzali jedna do druhej. V Bear Run v Pensylvánii postavil dom nad vodopádom nazývaný Falling Water (padajúca voda)

GOTICKÁ ARCHITEKTÚRA
Svojimi početnými lomenými oblúkmi, jemnou kamenárskou prácou a zložitými oknami sú gotické stavby opakom jednoduchých klasických stavieb. Gotický architektonický štýl sa začal objavovať v západnej Európe v 12. storočí. Využíval sa hlavne na stavbu katedrál a kostolov. Napriek tomu. Že gotické stavby sú väčšinou obrovské, pôsobia vďaka tenkým stenám, lomeným oblúkom a veľkým plochám okien z farebného skla vzdušne a pôvabne.

BAROKOVÁ ARCHITEKTÚRA
Taliansky architekti v 17.

storočí chceli prelomiť klasické pravidlá jednoduchosti a súmernosti a začali stavať budovy plné kriviek, dynamickejšie, vzrušujúcejšie. A tak stavbám pridávali kupolu, súsošia ornamentálnu výzdobu. Tento štýl známi aj ako baroko sa z Talianska rozšíril do ostatných krajín Európy. V barokov štýle bolo postavených veľa kostolov a veľkolepých palácov.

SÚČASNÁ ARCHITEKTÚRA
Stavebnými materiálmi dnešnej architektúry sú sklo, oceľ a betón. Jej výzdoba je striedma, lebo účel budov je považovaný za dôležitejší ako sú tvar alebo forma. „Medzinárodný“ štýl – sklo a betón zavesené na oceľovej kostre – môžeme vidieť takmer na celom svete.
Niektorí architekti navrhujú zvláštne, podivuhodné stavby, ktoré vynikajú nad ostatnými. Pri Paríži bolo vybudované nové mesto Marne-la-Vallée, kde je mnoho nezvyčajných budov postavených podľa návrhov niektorých odvážnych architektov. Neexistuje tu žiadna symetria alebo opakovanie prvkov. Mnohé z budov vyzerajú na prvý pohľad zvonka bizarne, ale interiér za v mnohom od obyčajných budov nelíši. Budovy majú väčšinou administratívnu, duchovnú alebo len komerčnú funciu.

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