Antioxidanty

Kategorie: Chémia (celkem: 331 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
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Antioxidanty

Oxidanty sú vedľajšie produkty ľudského metabolizmu, ktoré poškodzujú bielkoviny buniek. Sú to voľné kyslíkové radikály, ktoré v bunke nepriaznivým spôsobom ovplyvňujú cukry a tuky. Voľný radikál je elektricky nabitý atóm alebo jednoduchá molekula, ktorá obsahuje jeden alebo viac voľných (tzv. nespárených) elektrónov. V prítomnosti kyslíka sa na miesto nespáreného elektrónu okamžite naviaže molekula kyslíka a vzniká peroxylový radikál, ktorý sa snaží získať z inej zlúčeniny chýbajúci elektrón, čím vytvára iný voľný radikál. Táto reťazová reakcia je prerušená buď väzbou dvoch radikálov alebo reakciou s antioxidantom. Najznámejší vznik voľných radikálov prebieha v dýchacom reťazci, kde oxidáciou vzdušným kyslíkom vzniká energia a ako vedľajšie produkty voľné radikály: superoxid -O2´ a voľný hydroxylový radikál -O´. Tieto metabolické produkty voľných radikálov sú označované ako ROS (reactive oxygen species). K ROS látkam patrí napr. peroxid vodíka, singletový kyslík, kyselina chlorná a iné. Peroxid vodíka je v organizme zneškodňovaný hlavne glutathionperoxidázou (GSHPx), menej katalázou (CAT). Avšak pri nedostatku týchto enzýmov a v prítomnosti kovov ako Fe, Ni, Co, Cd, Cu vznikajú z peroxidu vodíka dva voľne hydroxylové radikály, ktoré s ďalším elektrónom vytvoria molekulu vody (Fentonova reakcia).
Antioxidanty sú látky schopné dezaktivovať nabitú časticu voľného radikálu a tak ju zlikvidovať skôr, než vyvolá ďalšiu reťazovú deštrukciu. Ideálne by bolo, keby boli antioxidanty a voľné radikály stále v rovnováhe. Avšak k tomuto ideálu sa náš organizmus približuje len asi na 90 - 98%. Narušenie tejto rovnováhy sa nazýva oxidačný stres. Likvidácia voľných radikálov trvá až 20 hodín. Zatiaľ napádajú tuky (lipidy) v bunkových membránach, narušujú bielkoviny a DNA. Tento degeneratívny proces sa nazýva peroxidácia tuku a je súčasťou mechanizmov takých chorôb ako arterioskleróza, rakovina, oslabenie imunitnej schopnosti, mnohé kardiovaskulárne, cerebrovaskulárne ochorenia, zvýšenie hladiny cholesterolu a ďalšie degeneratívne choroby ako napríklad Parkinsonova choroba, Alzheimerova choroba (demencia) a pod.. Vyššia hladina voľných radikálov tiež úzko súvisí s rýchlosťou procesov starnutia. Proti deštrukčnej aktivite voľných radikálov používa organizmus “vlastné zdroje”, ale tiež látky, ktoré sa do tela dostanú spolu so stravou. Vlastný obranný systém organizmu zastupujú enzýmy bielkovinovej povahy napr.

superoxiddismutáza (eliminujúca superoxidový radikál za vzniku peroxidu vodíka, ktorý nie je voľným radikálom, ale nie je menej škodlivým a preniká cez bunkové membrány a má dlhší polčas rozpadu ako voľné radikály), koenzým Q (ubichinon, ktorý je dôležitý v dýchacom reťazci a pri metabolizme tukov), melatonín, nikotinamid a ďalšie. Počet týchto enzýmov a ich koncentrácia v organizme je konštantná. Čo však môžeme ovplyvniť a regulovať, je prívod antioxidantov stravou. Najznámejším antioxidantom je vitamín C. Okrem antioxidačného pôsobenia podporuje tvorbu kolagénu (dôležitý pre spojivové tkanivo), tvorbu niektorých hormónov, vstrebávanie železa, podporuje metabolizmus bielkovín a bráni deštrukcii vitamínu E. Najdôležitejším antioxidantom je však vitamín E, ktorý je súčasťou bunkových stien. Tieto chráni pred peroxidáciou tukov a tak stabilizuje ich priechodnosť. Beta-karotén (provitamín A), z ktorého v pečeni vznikajú dve molekuly vitamínu A, je známy ako hasič tzv. singletového kyslíka. Táto radikálová forma kyslíka sa do organizmu dostáva z vonkajšieho prostredia (napr. cigaretový dym), ale tiež vzniká práve pri peroxidačných reakciách. Obdobné vlastnosti ako beta-karotén má L-karnosín. Antioxidačné účinky majú aj flavonoidy, ktoré obsahuje napríklad červené víno. Sú to: resveratrol, quercetin, katechin, epikatechin, rutin, glukozid quercetinu, kyselina galová, cyanidin a myricetin. Červené víno obsahuje asi sto alebo i viac flavonoidov, ale nie všetky sú antioxidantmi. Flavonoidy sú látky, ktoré dodávajú vínu jeho vôňu a celkový charakter. Červené víno obsahuje veľa fenolických látok (aromatických alkoholových zlúčenín), kam patia aj flavonoidy. Prečo je v červenom víne viac flavonoidov ako v bielom víne? Flavonoidy obsahujú šupky hrozna. Rozdiel je teda vo výrobe. Pri výrobe bieleho vína sa šupka odstráni z hrozna už na začiatku procesu, zatiaľ čo pri výrobe červeného zostávajú v kvasiacej šťave i šupky - dodávajú farvu a alkohol vyluhuje flavonoidy, ktoré potom dávajú vínu jeho charakteristickú chuť. Resveratrol je látka, ktorá sa zaraďuje do skupiny flavonoidov. Je to prírodný antifungicid (obmedzuje vznik plesní) a účinný antioxidant. Chráni naše cievy pred tukovými usadeninami. V Číne a Japonsku je už po stáročia známy v ľudovom liečiteľstve pod názvom kojo-kon. Resveratrol preukazateľne inhibuje LDL cholesterol a prudko zvyšuje podiel toho potrebného, HDL. Tým nás chráni pred srdcovo - cievnymi chorobami. Najviac je zastúpený v červenom víne z Bordeaux a Burgundska, ale obsahuje ho aj víno z iných oblastí. Napr. známkové biele víno Dan Ermite zo Znovínu Znojmo obsahuje podľa vinety ešte viac resveratrolu ako červené francúzske vína. Väčšia produkcia resveratrolu v rastlinách je spôsobená ich bojom proti zvýšenému výskytu plesní vo vlhších oblastiach.

Čo sa týka výskytu resveratrolu vo víne a jeho množstva v ňom, pôsobí tu ešte jeden faktor (ľudský). Všeobecne platí (i pre ostatné flavonoidy zastúpené vo víne), že viac ho je v nefiltrovaných vínach. To znamená, že ho nájdeme viac u drobných vinárov, ktorí spracuvávajú víno tradičnými spôsobmi, ako u veľkovýrobcov, ktorí víno filtrujú kvôli jeho čistote a aby sa vyhli rôznym usadeninám, ktoré nepôsobia dobre na kupujúcich. Quercetin má dvojaký účinok - jednak v boji s arteriosklerózou a jednak v boji s rakovinou. Rovnako ako resveratrol pôsobí proti usadzovaniu tukov v cievach, okrem toho je silným antioxidantom. Quercetin nenájdeme iba vo víne. Najviac je zastúpený v cibuľovitých rastlinách (hlavne cibuli, cesnaku, póre). Je však hydrofóbny, čo znamená, že neznáša prítomnosť vody. Je teda možné, že ho telo prijíma lepšie rozpustený v alkohole z vína než v prirodzenej forme. Na rozdiel od resveratrolu, ktorému sa darí v chladných a vlhkých viniciach a je závislý na odrode révy, je množstvo quercetinu určovane len intenzitou slnečného žiarenia. Čím viac priameho slnečného svetla, tým viac quercetinu v plodoch. Katechin je prítomný v ďaleko väčšej miere než ostatné užitočné fenolické látky. Má silné antioxidačné účinky, ale nie je schopný bojovať proti ukladaniu tuku. To isté platí pre epikatechin. Flavonoidy vo víne pravdepodobne spôsobujú "francúzsky paradox", že i keď Francúzi majú kuchyňu bohatú na tuky, trpia v Európe najmenej na kardiovaskulárne choroby. A nie je to spôsobené len konzumáciou rýb.
Antioxidanty sú najúčinnejšie v prirodzenej forme. Vitamín C - ovocie, špenát, žerucha, pažítka.
Betakarotén - mrkva, tekvica, špenát, šalát, melón, marhule, sušené slivky.
Vitamín E - mandle, lieskové orechy, obilné klíčky.
Flavonoidy - cibuľa, jablká, čučoriedky, hrozno, čierne ríbezle, tanín z červeného vína, zelený čaj, šalát, pohánka.

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