Alkaloidy - atropín a kokaín

Kategorie: Chémia (celkem: 341 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 01. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 8226×

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Alkaloidy - atropín a kokaín

ATROPA BELLADONNA
ĽUĽKOVEC ZLOMOCNÝ

Táto jedovatá bylina sa používa vo farmaceutických, homeopatických a rastlinných prípravkoch na úpravu mnohých stavov od artritídy až po kŕče. V prípade nesprávneho použitia je táto rastlina nebezpečná.

Legenda hovorí, že čert dohliada na rastúcu bylinu, ktorá obsahuje jeden z najviac medicínsky používaných jedov. Duncan I., škótsky kráľ, primäl Mackbethových vojakov omámiť celú armádu darovaným likérom ochuteným ľuľkovcom, takže ich mohli povraždiť v komatóznom spánku. Latinský názov ľuľkovca belladonna je odvodený od niekdajšieho zvyku talianskzch žien, ktoré používali túto rastlinu na rozšírenie zreníc, aby sa stali okúzľujúcimi. Pochádza z južnej Európy, ale vyskytuje sa tiež v Ázii, severnej Sfrike a Severnej Amerike. Je to rváca bylina s vajcovitými listami. Purpurové zvončekovité kvety sa tvoria v lete, po nich nasledujú vysoko jedovaté čierne bobule.

Používané časti: Celá bylina, sušený koreň.

Obsahové látky: Alkaloidy vrátane hyoscyamínu, hyoscínu a atropínu; flavonoidy.

Účinky: Narkotikum; sedatívum; rozširuje zrenice; uvoľňuje svalové napätie a kŕče.

Medicínske použitie: Podáva sa pri prudkej črevnej, obličkovej alebo žlčníkovej kolike, nadmernom slinení alebo potení a pri bronchiálnych ochoreniach ( napr. pri astme ). Zvonku sa používa pri reumatických bolestiach. Vedľajšie účinky sú búšenie srdca, zvýšený krvný tlak a intenzívny smäd. V homeopatii sa aplikuje pri vysokých horúčkach, bolestiach hlavy, prerezávani zubov, prechladnutiach, zapálenom hrdle, suchom kašli, bolestiach brucha, horúčke a kŕčoch. V klasickej medicíne sa prípravky ľuľkovca predpisujú pri črevných kŕčoch, poruchách trávenia, migréne a zápale kĺbov.

Prípravky: Zápar, tinktúra, krém, náplaste, homeopatické lieky, farmaceutické prípravky.

UPOZORNENIE! Predávkovanie je nebezpečné a môže byť smrteľné.


ERYTHROXYLON COCA
KOKAINOVNÍK OBYČAJNÝ

Listy kokainovníka, ktoré Peruánci stáročia žuvali ako stimulans, sa v klasickej medicíne pokladajú za zdroj kokaínu. Tátop droga sa v súčasnosti používa najmä ako lokálne anestetikum. Peruánski Indiáni žuvali listy koky na zmiernenie hladu a únavy a práve tento zvyk viedol k myšlienky originálneho receptu Coca - Coly, založeného na výťažkoch z koky. V roku 1902 však bolo použitie rastliny v nápoji zakázané pre jeho nebezpečné vedľajšie účinky. Prvé záznamy o použití koky pochádzajú z roku 500 n.l., ale až v roku 1860 bola prvýkrát extrahovaná droga kokaín.

Pochádza z Peru a Bolívie, ale bola dovezená aj do Indonézie. Je to kríkovitý strom s hrubými oválnymi listami, kvitne v lete a tvorí malé guľaté bobule podobné plodom kávovníka.

Používané časti: Listy

Obsahové časti: Tropánové alkaloidy vrátane kokaínu a cinamyl. Kokaínu; glykozidy; kyselina kokánová; silica obsahujúca metyl salicylát; flavonoidy.

Účinky: Stimulans centrálnej nervovej sústavy; lokálne anestetikum.

Medicínske použitie: Jej medicínske použitie je ako lokálne anestetikum pri menších chirurgických zákrokoch. Príležitostne sa zmes morfínu a kokaínu ( Bronptonov koktail )predpisuje nevyliečiteľne chorým pacientom na zmiernenie bolesti a utrpenia.

Prípravky: List, tinktúra, farmaceutické prípravky.
UPOZORNENIE! Zakázaná droga vo väčšine krajín; vlastnenie je protizákonné.

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