Aké geologické dôkazy svedčia o tom, že organizmy zapríčinili súčasné na kyslík bohaté zloženie atmosféry?

Kategorie: Biológia (celkem: 970 referátů a seminárek)



Aké geologické dôkazy svedčia o tom, že organizmy zapríčinili súčasné na kyslík bohaté zloženie atmosféry?

Geologické dôkazy o tom, že živé organizmy zapríčinili súčasné na kyslík bohaté zloženie atmosféry sa nachádzajú vo vrstvách sedimentárnych hornín. Tieto horniny vznikali postupným ukladaním sa vo vrstvách na už existujúce horniny, mladšie sedimenty sú zvyčajne uložené na starších sedimentoch. Vo všeobecnosti platí, že čím nižšia vrstva, tým je staršia, až na niektoré výnimky, keď môžu byť vrstvy ďalšími geologickými procesmi uložené buď zvisle alebo naopak, čo vzniklo v neskorších geologických obdobiach napr. pri vrásnení. Vlastnosti sedimentárnych hornín sú v úzkom vzťahu s prostredím, v ktorom vznikali. Jednotlivé sledy vrstiev (súvrstvia) môžu obsahahovať aj charakteristické fosílne zvyšky živočíchov a rastlín pre dané obdobie. Relatívny vek sedimentárnych hornín možno určiť pomocou stratigrafických tabuliek, t.j. je usporiadanie geologických vrstiev (tzv. stratigrafického sledu) podľa charakteristického geologického obdobia Zeme. Najstaršie hľadané dôkazy pochádzajú z obdobia pred takmer 3 x 109 rokmi, keď sa po prvýkrát objavili organizmy, ktoré po sebe zanechali fosílne pozostatky – stromatolity. Tieto fosílie pochádzajú z vrstiev zeleno – modrých baktérií, ktoré boli pravdepodobne prvými organizmami, produkujúci voľný kyslík v procese fotosyntézy. Niektoré najstaršie sedimentárne horniny (obdobie staršieho prekambria) obsahujú vo zvýšenej miere viazané zlúčeniny železa (ložiská železných rúd), ktoré sa vytvorili vyzrážaním z dažďových zrážok v prostredí bezkyslíkovej atmosféry. Prítomnosť týchto zlúčenín sa vytráca vo vrstvách, ktoré sedimentovali v období mladšieho prekambria, približne v tom čase, keď sa objavujú nové vrstvy sedimentov označované ako „vrstvy červeného ílu“. Túto ich farbu spôsobujú zlúčeniny podobné hrdze, teda rôzne oxidy železa, nakoľko bola už atmosféra bohatšia na kyslík. Teda dôkazmi o tom, že organizmy zapríčinili súčasné na kyslík bohaté zloženie atmosféry sú fosílne pozostatky stromatolitov a vrstvy červeného ílu v sedimentárnych horninách prekambria.

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