Agamovité

Kategorie: Biológia (celkem: 970 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 3933×

Příbuzná témata



Agamovité


Agamovite (Agamidae) tvoria skupinu zivocichov,pozostavujucu z mnohych druhov drsnosupinatych,stihlych,akoby vycivenych jasterov.Rozsirene su len na vychodnej pologuli a najhojnejsie su len tropoch a subtropoch.Ziju rovnako v pralesoch ako na
piesocnatych pustach.Ich dvojnici su leguany Noveho sveta.Niektore druhy agamovitych sa usidluju v tom istom prostredi ako leguany a prekvapujuco sa navzajom podobaju.Leguany maju vsak zuby volne zasadene po bokoch celusti a casto sa im po vypadnuti alebo zlomeni nahradzuju.Agamy naproti tomu maju zuby silnejsie a pevne vklinene do celuste,ktore sa po vypadnuti uz nenahradzaju.Jazyk leguanov pokryvaju drobne makke vyrastky.Agamy aj leguany maju po bokoch tela,ba casto aj ne chrbte a na bruchu,male zrnkovite supiny a vedia menit farbu.
K agamovitym patri najgrotesknejsi jaster vobec,australsky moloch trnity (Moloch horridus).Ma dlhsie trne ako jeho americky dvojnik-ropusnik trnistohlavy (Phrynosoma cortunum).Oba tieto druhy sa podobaju tym,ze nevedia hryzt,zivia sa len mravcami a ziju v piesocnatych polosuchych oblastiach.Vodne agamy (Physignathus a Hydrosaurus),ktore casto vidat v zoologickych zahradach,maju na tele zvacsa nizky hreben,iba jeden druh,dosahujuci dlzku az 80 cm,ma vysoky chvostovy hreben.Jaster golierikaty (Chlamydosaurus kingi) ma okolo spodnej casti hlavy pod krkom velku dazdniku podobnu blanu.Normalne mu visi tato ozdoba poskladana do zahybou volne pozdlz krku a siaha az po plecia,ale ked ho vyplasia,moze golier rozprestriet.Rozprestrenym golierom a nasiroko otvorenou pestrofarebnou papulkou pokusa sa tento okolo 45 cm dlhy jaster zastrasit nepriatela.Australska jasterica bradata (Amphibolorus barbatus) ma okolo krku podobny,ale mensi golier.Asi 50 druhov pravych agam (Agama spp.) zije v pustach Afriky,juhozapadnej Azie a juhovychodnej Europy.Su okolo 45-60 cm dlhe a chvost niektorych druhov ma prstence kratkych trnov.Agamy su prevazne hmyzozravce,trnochvoste agamy sa vsak zivia rastlinstvom.Maju siroko korunkate zadne zuvacie stolicky a ostre predne rezaky,ktore sa podobaju potkanim a su vhodne na ohryzanie vrcholkov rastlin.Ropuchohlave jastery (Phrynocephalus spp.) ziju v norach na piesocnatych pustach.Tito trpaslici (10-20 cm) maju dlhe chvosty bez ostnov a okolo oci obrubu zo supin na ochtanu proti piesku.Jaster krvilacnik (Calotes versicolor) patri medzi tropicke stromove jastery.Ma dlhy chvost a koncatiny.Tieto jastery necicaju krv,ako sa o nich hovori,ale mozu menit farbu od sivastohnedej po cervenu.Ak napriklad dva samce bojuju,vitaz ocervenie a porazeny odtiahne prec v najchmurnejsom sfarbeni.Podobne stromove agamy hranatohlave (Gonyocephalus spp.) ziju v pralesoch od juhovychodnej Azie po Australiu.

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