Afrika

Kategorie: Geografia (celkem: 1047 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 11738×

Příbuzná témata



Afrika

Rozloha – 30,3 mil.m
povrch – nahorne plosiny ( stred.vyska 750m), znizeniny, panvy, pohoria
- Sahara, libyjska pust, Cadske jazero, Konzska panva, Guinejska vysocina, Namib
Kilimandzaro, Etiopska vysocina, Dracie vrchy, jazera Tanganika a Malawi
podnebie – teple podneb. pasmo, tropicka sucha oblast, sev.A – pust Sahara, juz. A. – pust
Kalahari, tropicka vlhka pasatova oblast – vych. A., rovnikove podnebie, savany
plodiny – arabska guma, arasidy, avokado, myrha, sorgo, maniok, kaucuk, kava, kola, kapok, korok, mango, datle, palma olejna, sezam, vanilka, kakao
Obyvatelstvo – priem. hustota – 800 o./km – delta Nilu, 450 – vych. Nigeria,
Rasy – biela – arabsko-berberske skupiny na severe a potomkovia eu. kolonistov
negroidna – bantuske kmene, sudanski cernosi, nilotske kmene,
prechodne rasy – Fulbovia, Hausovia
cierna rasa – Krovaci, brusmeni
povod. obyv. – maleho vzrastu pigmeyovia, hotentoti
hospodarstvo – primitivne naturalne, vyspele trhovo orientovane – mensina statov a JAR. - je to dosledok kolonialneho panstva a celkovej ekonom. zaostalosti
- vyvaza sa asi 90% vytazenych surovin, dovazaju sa hotove vyrobky
HDP – zaostalych statov (14) – rocne asi 250 USD
Libia, Seychely, Alzirsko – rocne viac jako 2500 USD na jedneho obyv.
Liga arabskych statov – 12 azijskych a 9 afr. statov (Alzirsko, Egypt, Maroko, Somalsko,
Tunisko, Mauritania ) – r. 1945, sidlo v Tunise
Hospod. spolocenstvo stredoafr. statov- Gabon, Kamerun, Kongo, Zair, Cad, Angola –1983

SEVERNA AFRIKA
Mauritania, Alzirsko, Libya, Egypt, Zap. Sahara, Maroko, Mellila, Tunisko
Rozloha – 24,2 mil. km
Povrch – pohorie Atlas, riedka riecna siet, vyschnute riecne koryta – vadi, Arabska pust
Podnebie – subtropicke teple pasmo, snezna ciara, 58°C, puste a polopuste
Rieky – Nil, Vadi Draa, nadrz Asual
Pohoria – Atlas, Tasili,
Priemysel – tazba a chem. priemysel, sprac. ropy, vyvoz plodin, cestovny ruch, vyroba elektriky – Eg.
Nerastne suroviny – ropa, zem. plyn, fosfaty, kovy, polymetalicke rudy
Hospodarstvo – citrusy, zel, olivy, datlr, figy, mandle, korok, bavlna- najviac Alzirsko a Eg., ale aj Maroko a Tun, najm Maur
Obyvatelstvo – 1 ovyv.

na 1 km
Kmene – Semiti, Hamiti, Arabi
Nabozenstvo – prevaha moslimske

ZAPADNA AFRIKA
Senegal, Guinea, Pobrezie slonoviny, Togo, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina,
Podnebie – tropicka vlhka a tropicka sucha oblast, savany, teple a dazdive,
Rieky – Niger, Senegal, Volta
Pohoria – Guineiska vysina
Priemysel – tazba zlata a diamantov – Nigeria, senegal, Pobrezie sl., mangan. a med. ruda, polymeta. rudy
Nerastne suroviny – bauxid, diamanty
Hospodarstvo – pomerne slaby, zemiaky, jamy – hluzy, maniok, sisal, banany, kava, arasidy, mango, kakaovnik
Obyvatelstvo – okolo 10 obyv. na 1 km
Kmene – sudanske narody, guanejcania, bielocierna a cierna rasa, tuaregovia – kocovny kmen, asi 23% v meste

STREDNA AFRIKA
Čad, Stredoaf. republika, Zair, Kamerun, Gabon, Rovnikova Guinea, Kongo, Cabinda
Povrch – tvoreny prevazne pohoriami pomerne bohatsia riecna siet, tropicke dazdove lesy
Podnebie – rovnikove podnebie – stred.část, tropicke suche pod. – juh,
Rieky - Sari, Sanaga, kongo, Zair
Jazera – Cadske jazero
Pohoria – Adamauska vysocina, Tibesti
Priemysel – slabo rozvinuty priemysel, ale v rozvinutych statoch je to spracovanie nerast. surovin a tazobny pr.
Nerastne suroviny – med, uran, kobalt, cin, mangan, diamant – v Zaire
Hospodarstvo – je to zvacsa polnohospodarstvo – kakaovnik, kaucuk, palma olejna, exportne plodiny, na severe hov.
dobytok, tazba dreva
Obyvatelstvo – okolo 10 – 50 obyv. na 1 km
Kmene – sudanske narody, kanuri, tibuovia, bantuovia, pygmejci

VYCHODNA AFRIKA
Sudan, Eritrea, Etiopia, Somalsko, Kena, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi
Povrch – hornate vnutrozemie, nahorne plosiny, savany, vlhke trop. pralesy, na zapade puste
Podnebie – tropicke vlhke a suche teple pasma
Rieky – Nil, Sobat, Tana,
Jazera – Turkana – Rudolfovo j., Albert,Viktorino j. Tanganika, Malawi
Pohoria – Etiopska vysocina, Kilimandzaro, Masajska step
Priemysel – textilny a lahky priemysel, petrochemicky pr., cestovny ruch, lov ryb, doprava
Nerastne suroviny – velmi malo
Hospodarstvo – extenzivny chov hov. dobytka, oviec, vyvoz. plodiny. kava , caj, tabak, sisal
Obyvatelstvo – velmi nerovnomerne, okolo 10 obyvatelov na km
Kmene – niloti, bantuovia, somalcania, amhari

JUZNA AFRIKA
Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambik, Madagaskar, Botswana, Namibia, JAR
Povrch – prevazne hornate, veľa lesov a krovin, savany, puste – Namib, Kalahari,
Podneie - subekvatorialne, tropicke suche, subtropicke – na juh
Rieky – Oranje, Zambezi,
Jazera – část Malawi
Pohoria – plosina Katanga, Dracie vrchy,
Priemysel- spracovanie nerast. surovin, moderna velkovyroba, automatizacia, mechanizacia
Nerastne suroviny – mangan, med, kobalt, fareb. kovy, ropa, zem. plyn, diamanty
Hospodarstvo – chov. hov. dobytka, najme na zap.

pobrezi – kokosovnik, palma olejna, , na juhu chov oviec
Obyvatelstvo – nerovnomerne- na vychod okolo 1 obyv. na km, na zapade okolo 50 a viac na km
Kmene - Malgaši – Madag, Bantuovia, Angloafricania, Kojsani, Afrikanci, Hotentoti,.

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