Aerobné systémy biologického čistenia odpadových vôd

Kategorie: Biológia (celkem: 970 referátů a seminárek)

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  • Datum přidání: 12. března 2007
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Aerobné systémy biologického čistenia odpadových vôd

Aerobné systémy biologického čistenia odpadových vôd.

Pri aerobnom biologickom čistení odpadových vôd sa využíva tzv. funkčná polykultúra tvorená zmesou aerobných a anaerobných baktérií, plesní, húb, kvasiniek, prvokov, vírnikov a červov. Vhodné zloženie polykultúry je dané zložením odpadovej vody a technologickým procesom čistiarne. Mikroorganizmy využívajú organické látky v odpadovej vode ako substrát, ktorý čiastočne oxidujú na CO2 a vodu a tiež čiastočne premieňajú na novú biomasu. Aerobné biologické čistenie sa robí v aktivačných nádržiach alebo v biologických kolónach.

Čistenie v aktivačných nádržiach.

Kontinuálne biologické čistenie s recykláciou nazývame aktivačný proces. Schému aktivačného procesu je vidieť na obr.3.15. Aktivačné nádrže bývajú betónové, pravouhlé, nádržové alebo kanálové (koridorové). Výška vodného stĺpca býva 3 a 6 m. Kyslík sa do nádrže dodáva aeračným zariadením, ktoré udržuje aktivovaný kal v rozptýlenom stave.
Spôsoby aerácie:
• pneumatická - vzduch je vháňaný ku dnu nádrže, kde sa dostáva do vody dierovanými trubkami. Tieto aerátory sa rozdeľujú na hrubo, stredne a jemnobublinkové. Priemer bublín býva 2÷10 mm.
• mechanická aerácia - pri ktorej je hladina je mechanicky čerená.
Aerátory majú os otáčania : - vertikálnu (aeračné turbíny)
- horizontálnu (aeračné valce, kefy).
• kombinovaná aerácia,
• aerácia čistým kyslíkom - špeciálne prípady (celulózky).


Čistenie v biologických kolónach.

Pri druhom spôsobe aerobného biologického čistenia sa používajú biologické kolóny. Sú to nádrže obyčajne kruhového pôdorysu, ktorých plášť býva betónový, plechový alebo laminátový. Ich náplň tvorí kamenná drť, sypané výlisky z plastov alebo bloky z profilovaných plastických dosiek. Merný povrch plastických náplní býva 80 až 300 m2/m3, medzerovitosť 90 ÷ 97 %. Dôležité je zabezpečiť rovnomerné rozdelenie odpadovej vody po celom priereze kolóny. Najčastejšie sa na to používa kropítko s hydraulickým pohonom na princípe Segnerovho kolesa. Funkčná polykultúra je aktivovaná vo forme biofilmu na náplni, po ktorej steká odpadová voda. Aerácia je zabezpečovaná prirodzeným prúdením vzduchu v dôsledku teplotného rozdielu vo vnútri a zvonka kolóny. Prebytočná biomasa je strhávaná prúdom vody a po separácii v dosadzovacej nádrži nie je potrebné vracať ju do kolóny.

Vyčistená voda však môže aj recirkulovať kvôli zriedeniu koncentrovaných odpadových vôd alebo kvôli preplachu náplne kolóny.
Zvláštnym druhom biologických kolón sú rotačné diskové reaktory. V nich je biofilm kultivovaný na pomaly sa otáčajúcich zvislo postavených diskoch, ktoré sú čiastočne ponorené do čistenej odpadovej vody. Rotácia disku zabezpečuje striedavý kontakt biofilmu s odpadovou vodou a vzduchom. Konštrukčne sú riešené ako horizontálne pretekaný žľab s plastovými kotúčami. Priemer kotúčov býva 0,5 m až 3,5 m. Biologické kolóny majú tieto výhody :
• nižšia spotreba energie v porovnaní s aktivačným procesom,
• vyššia odolnosť biofilmových reaktorov voči tvorbe vlákien mikroorganizmov, kedy sa separačné schopnosti suspenznej kultúry zhoršujú v dôsledku rozvoja vláknitých mikroorganizmov.

Nazov: životopis
Autor: Tippy Hedren
Oblast: 15
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Actress. Born in New Ulm, Minnesota. Hedren was acting in a commercial during the Today show in 1952 when Alfred Hitchcock “discovered” her. He placed her in a starring role in his film classic The Birds (1963), then in Marnie (1964) with Sean Connery, and she developed the screen persona of an icy, sophisticated, but vulnerable blonde beauty. She next appeared in Charlie Chaplin’s final film The Countess from Hong Kong with Marlon Brando and Sophia Loren, but it was a flop, and her film career ultimately did not live up to its early promise.

During filming in Africa of Satan’s Harvest in 1969, Hedren became interested in the plight of wildlife. Since then she has devoted much of her life to the creation and funding of wildlife preservation groups. She is founder and director of The Shambala Preserve and The Roar Foundation, named after her 1981 film Roar which featured a performance by daughter Melanie Griffith, and was directed by her second husband, director Noel Marshall. She teamed up with Melanie again in 1990’s Pacific Heights.

Hedren has been married three times. With her first husband, Peter Griffith, she had Melanie, born in 1957. She was married to Noel Marshall from 1964 to 1982, and married her current husband, Luis Barrenecha, in 1985. Hedren resides in the Shambala complex near Acton, CA.

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