2. Newtonov pohybový zákon

Kategorie: Fyzika a astronómia (celkem: 482 referátů a seminárek)

Informace o referátu:

  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 05. července 2007
  • Zobrazeno: 11254×

Příbuzná témata

2. Newtonov pohybový zákon

Newtonov zákon sily vo formulácii platnej pre hmotný bod hovorí: Sila pôsobiaca na hmotný bod je úmerná súčinu jeho hmoty a zrýchlenia, ktoré mu udeľuje.
Touto vetou vyslovený obsah Newtonovho zákona sily vyžaduje bližšie objasnenie, pretože sa tu hovorí o sile a hmote, fyzikálnych veličinách.
Z Newtonovho zákonu zotrvačnosti vyplýva, že len pôsobenie iných telies môže zmeniť pohybový stav telesa pohybujúceho sa vzhľadom na inerciálnu vzťažnú sústavu určitou rýchlosťou. Pojem sila z bežnej reči do svojich fyzikálnych úvah , nazývame vo fyzike silou pôsobiacou na dané teleso fyzikálnou veličinou vektorovej povahy, charakterizujúcu tie účinky iných telies, ktoré sa môžu prejaviť zmenou jeho pohybového stavu. Pritom smer sily stotožňujeme so smerom zrýchlenia, ktoré sila vyvoláva, a bod telesa, v ktorom sa silové účinky bezprostredne uplatňujú, nazývame pôsobiskom sily.
Vieme, že tie isté vplyvy, ktoré za vhodných podmienok, mienia pohybový stav telies, pri pôsobení sa tak nazývané pružné telesá menia aj ich tvar a rozmery., čiže deformujú ich. Majme na mysli dve telesá, T1 a T2 , a pôsobme na ne postupne silami S1 a S2. Príslušné zrýchlenia nech majú absolútne hodnoty podľa tabuľky:

T1 T2
S2 a11 a12
a21 a22

V ktorej napríklad zrýchlenie a12 je zrýchlenie udelené silou S1 telesu T2. Konaním pokusov sa môžeme presvedčiť, že je splnená úmera:

a11 : a21 = a12 : a22

Táto úmera je vlastným obsahom Newtonovho zákona sily. Hovorí, že podiel absolútnych hodnôt zrýchlení, ktoré dve rôzne sily udeľujú tomuže telesu, od zvoleného telesa nezávisí. Je preto prirodzené z dvoch síl pokladať napríklad druhú za súčin prvej sily a podielu zrýchlení a2 a a1 , ktoré ony tomu istému telesu udeľujú, t.j. pre ich hodnoty P2 aP1 písať úmeru:

P2 : P1 = a2 : a1

rovnocennú so vzorcom

P2 = a2/a1. P1

Na meranie síl podľa práve napísaného spôsobu (dynamické meranie síl) treba už len zvoliť nejakú silu za jednotku sily. Ak zvolená jednotka sily, označme ju P1, udeľuje nejakému telesu zrýchlenie a1 a meraná sila udeľuje tomu istému telesu zrýchlenie a, je hodnota meranej sily P určená vzorcom:

P = a/a1.


Úmeru a11 : a21 = a12 : a22 môžeme však upraviť na tvar:

a11 : a12 = a21 : a22
V tomto tvare písaný vzťah medzi zrýchleniami, ktoré udeľujú dve rôzne sily, dvom rôznym telesám, vyjadruje, že podiel zrýchlení, ktoré teraz tá istá sila udeľuje dvom rôznym telesám, je od sily nezávislí.
Ak sa nejaké teleso za pôsobenia nejakej sily dostáva do pohybu, ktorý sa vyznačuje veľkým zrýchlením, hovoríme, že teleso má len malú zotrvačnú hmotu. Ak toto zrýchlenie je malé, hovoríme, že toto teleso má veľkú hmotu. Hmota telies je fyzikálna veličina, ktorá vyjadruje jednu z najdôležitejších vlastností materiálnych telies. Charakterizuje odpor telies proti zmenám ich pohybového stavu.

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