100 Jahre Nobelpreis

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  • Přidal/a: anonymous
  • Datum přidání: 12. března 2007
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100 Jahre Nobelpreis

Mit den Preisgeldern wächst auch die Kritik am Nobelpreis. Ist die Auszeichnung, die in den letzten 100 Jahren Höhen und Tiefen erlebt hat, überhaupt noch zeitgemäß? Eine Bestandsaufnahme.

Das Testament ließ wenig Zweifel, und dennoch zog sich die Gründung der Nobelstiftung über Jahre hin. In seinem knapp formulierten Letzen Willen bestimmte Alfred Nobel 1895, dass alljährlich aus den Zinsen seines Vermögens Preise verliehen werden sollten - und zwar an diejenigen Persönlichkeiten, die im zurückliegenden Jahr der Menschheit den größten Nutzen beschert hatten. Die Unsicherheit unter den Nachlassverwaltern war groß: Wie sollte Nobels letzter Wille in die Tat umgesetzt werden, was passiert mit dem Geld und wie genau sollten die Preisträger ausgesucht werden? Es dauerte vier Jahre, bis schließlich am 20. Juni 1900 die Nobelstiftung offiziell gegründet werden konnte. Ein Jahr später wurden zum ersten Mal die Nobelpreise verliehen. Sie sollten sich im 20. Jahrhundert zu den mit Abstand wichtigsten und prestigeträchtigsten internationalen Auszeichnungen entwickeln. Mitunter auch zu den umstrittensten: Nicht nur die Literaten unter den Preisträgern, per se dem unbarmherzigen Urteil der Kritik ausgesetzt, wurden in den zurückliegenden Jahren teils kontrovers diskutiert. Auch ausgezeichnete Physiker und Chemiker mussten sich harsche Worte anhören. Oftmals waren die Kollegen einfach nur neidisch, manchmal lag die Jury - ob aus Geklüngel oder Unwissen - auch voll daneben. Andere machten Schlagzeilen, weil sie vom Nobelpreiskomitee schlicht ignoriert wurden: So wurde Albert Einstein (angeblich auf Grund des Vetos eines einzigen Jurymitglieds) jahrelang der Nobelpreis vorenthalten, bevor er 1921 schließlich die verdiente Auszeichnung entgegen nehmen konnte - allerdings nicht für seine bahnbrechende Relativitätstheorie sondern für die eher nebensächlichen Entdeckungen zum Photoelektrischen Effekt. Allerdings: Rückblickend hat es in der Regel die Richtigen erwischt. Dazu beigetragen hat sicherlich die Konstruktion des Modells Nobelpreis. Die auswählenden Institutionen sind klar getrennt von Regierungen, sonstigen Organisationen und der eigentlichen Nobelstiftung. Letztere ist für die finanziellen Belange zuständig und im Prinzip nichts anderes als ein Investmenthaus. Hohe Steuern, kleine Renditen
Besonders in den Anfangsjahren fielen die Renditen gering aus. Die Investition in Anleihen warf wenig Geld ab, und die Steuerfrage wurde überhaupt nicht bedacht.

Lange Zeit war die Stiftung der größte Steuerzahler in Stockholm. Als dann noch Kriegssteuern fällig wurden, sank 1923 der ausgeschüttete Betrag auf sein historisches Minimum. Erst 1946 wurde die Stiftung von der Steuer befreit. In der Folge kletterten die Preisgelder rein zahlenmäßig in ungeahnte Höhen, gemessen an der Kaufkraft nahmen sie aber dramatisch ab. 1901 machte der Nobelpreis nach Angaben der Stiftung das 20fache des durchschnittlichen Jahresgehalts eines Universitätsprofessors aus. In den fünfziger Jahren war es gerade noch das Siebenfache. Erst eine grundlegende Änderung der Richtlinien für die Geldanlage brachte Besserung. Als die Stiftung (ermächtigt durch die Regierung) ihr Vermögen auch in Aktien und Immobilien anlegen durfte, legten die Preisgelder rapide zu. 1991 hatten die ausgeschütteten Preise inflationsbereinigt wieder den Wert von 1901 erreicht. Mittlerweile beträgt das Vermögen der Stiftung - nicht zuletzt durch geschickte Aktienspekulationen - rund vier Milliarden Schwedische Kronen (800 Millionen Mark). Im Jubiläumsjahr werden die ausgeschütteten Preise zum ersten Mal den zweistelligen Millionenbereich erreichen. Der oder die Preisträger können sich in den sechs Kategorien jeweils über zehn Millionen Kronen (rund zwei Millionen Mark) freuen. Finanzielle Schwierigkeiten waren das eine, politische Unwägbarkeiten das andere: Der Zweite Weltkrieg ging auch an der Nobelstiftung nicht spurlos vorbei. Von 1939 bis 1943 fielen die Feierlichkeiten aus, und auch die Nobelpreise wurden während dieser Zeit nur sehr spärlich verliehen: Zwischen 1940 und 1942 gab es überhaupt keine Preisträger. 1943 wurden nur Physiker, Chemiker und Mediziner ausgezeichnet. Die deutschen Preisträger dieser Zeit, darunter der Chemiker Otto Hahn (1944), mussten länger als gewohnt auf ihre Auszeichnungen warten. Adolf Hitler, zutiefst verärgert durch die Verleihung des Friedensnobelpreises an den Journalisten und Pazifisten Carl von Ossietzky, untersagte ihnen, die Preise aus "Feindeshand" zu empfangen. Erst nach dem Krieg konnten die Deutschen ihre Urkunden und Medaillen entgegennehmen.

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